JCSCW Vol. 04 (1995)

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  • Journal Article
    Comparing collaborative drawing tools and whiteboards: An analysis of the group process
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 1, 1995) Aytes, Kregg
    Collaborative drawing tools, which are designed to allow multiple users to share an electronic drawing space, have recently become the focus of many researchers' efforts. While advances have been made in the technological implementation of these tools, little is known about the effect these tools have on group processes. This paper discusses a study that was conducted to compare groups using conventional (whiteboard) technology to those using collaborative drawing tools. The results of these two experiments provide evidence that these tools alter the way in, which groups work. For some types of tasks, the amount of interaction among group members using a collaborative drawing tool tends to be less than among groups using conventional technology. Groups using collaborative drawing tools tended to take significantly longer than whiteboard groups. Possible reasons for these results are further explored in this paper.
  • Journal Article
    Time, technology and groups: An integration
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995) Arrow, Holly; Berdahl, Jennifer L.; Bouas, Kelly S.; Craig, Kellina M.; Cummings, Anne; Lebie, Linda; McGrath, Joseph E.; O'Connor, Kathleen M.; Rhoades, Jonathan A.; Schlosser, Ann
    This paper summarizes main findings of the five empirical papers in this issue, and discusses certain themes that connect them.
  • Journal Article
    The development of group identity in computer and face-to-face groups with membership change
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995) Bouas, Kelly S.; Arrow, Holly
    A three-part conception of group identity is proposed that draws on common fate, cohesiveness, and cognitive views of group identity. The changing contribution of these three components to group identity was examined for 31 original and 29 reconfigured groups which met for 7 consecutive weeks using either face-to-face (FIF) or computer-mediated communication (CMC). Group identity was consistently lower for computer-mediated groups, and this effect was stronger in the reconfigured groups. In the original groups, group identity started high and declined for both FTF and CMC groups. In the reconfigured groups, developmental patterns differed from those of the original groups, and also differed by communication medium. Individual differences accounted for a substantial amount of variance in group identity across original and reconfigured groups.
  • Journal Article
    Why people do and don't wear active badges: A case study
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 4, 1995) Harper, Richard H. R.
    This paper reports findings from an analysis of attitudes toward and use of active badges and associated applications in a large corporate research laboratory. The evidence will show that there were two distinct sets of views about active badges, leading one group within the institution to be strongly opposed to their introduction and use, and another very supportive. Analysis of these views will show that they were the manifestation of two different morally cohered communities. The demonstrable existence of these communities was in part achieved through and displayed by the avowal of these distinct sets of attitudes and views. Further, analysis of the particular communities will suggest that some of these views and attitudes had the character of being sacred or semi-sacred; in this sense they were beliefs. On the basis of these materials, the paper will conclude with discussion of how beliefs can form the bedrock of any and all communities, and how it is necessary to respect those beliefs if one wishes to introduce technologies to support group activities. Failure to do so can lead to the rejection of systems on grounds well removed from the purported purpose of those systems.
  • Journal Article
    The effects of a “distinct window” screen design on computer-mediated group decision making
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 1, 1995) Dubrovsky, Vitaly; Clapper, Danial; Ullal, Monali
    An experiment was performed to test a “distinct-window” conferencing screen design as an electronic cue of social status differences in computer-mediated group decision-making. The screen design included one “distinct” window to symbolize high-status, and two “nondistinct” windows to symbolize low-status. The results indicated that the distinct-window screen design did produce status affects in groups of peers making decisions on judgmental problems. Randomly assigned occupants of the distinct window had greater influence on group decisions and member's attitudes than occupants of nondistinct windows.
  • Journal Article
    Introduction: The JEMCO-2 Study of time, technology, and groups
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995) Mcgrath, Joseph E.; Arrow, Holly
    An experimental study of 60 work groups that met weekly either face to face or via a computer conferencing system for seven weeks is described. The experimental design, computer technology, experimental tasks, and composition of the groups are described in detail. A brief overview is given of the five empirical pieces in this special issue that report findings from this experimental study.
  • Journal Article
    The relevance of ‘work-practice’ for design
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 4, 1995) Button, Graham; Harper, Richard
    Designers are increasingly being urged to take account of the situated and contingent organisation of the work that their systems are to support or automate. Within CSCW the concept of work-practice is a much used token for the organisation of work. This paper develops the debate about the position of work-practice in design by recognising that it is an ambiguous concept in sociology that is used to refer to different orders to work organisation. It is argued that as such it is as likely to mask the situated and contingent organisation of work as it is to make it visible. In order to fully realise the radicalisation of design portended by the deployment of the concept of work-practice and in order to make visible the in situ organisation of work it is argued that full and due weight has to be placed upon grounding the concept in analytic explications of the interactional ordering of work. This stands in contrast to grounding work-practice in the formalisms of work emanating from theoretical debates about work in a capitalist economic/social structure; documentations of work; the narratives of workers, managers, and purchasers; dialogues with users, and mere observations of work. Two studies are invoked to substantiate this argument, one involving a sales ordering and invoicing system, the other a crime reporting system.
  • Journal Article
    A model of social, emotional and symbolic aspects of computer-mediated communication within organizations
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 1, 1995) Sillince, John A. A.
    Little work has as yet been undertaken into the modelling and formalizing of group, collaborative and cooperative work using computers. This paper sets out to describe and model the social, emotional, and symbolic aspects of computer-based communication within an organization. A descriptive model is developed which relates elements together and an example is given to illustrate some of the elements.
  • Journal Article
    Developing complex group products: Idea combination in computer-mediated and face-to-face groups
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 1995) Cummings, Anne; Schlosser, Ann; Arrow, Holly
    This study examines how group experience, communication medium, and strategies for combining individual ideas influence the integrative complexity of group products. Each week for six weeks, members of 31 work groups wrote individual essays about their group tasks and experiences, and then collaborated on a group essay on the same topic. Results indicate that in the later weeks of the study, computer-mediated groups produce essays with higher integrative complexity than those of face-to-face groups. The integrative complexity of essays in later weeks is a joint function of the complexity of member ideas and the number of members who participate directly in writing the essay (scribes). The greater complexity of computer-mediated groups' essays in the later weeks of the study is partly accounted for by their use of more scribes and their inclusion of more unique member ideas.
  • Journal Article
    Information technology and regulatory reformThe interorganisational effects of a technological innovation
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 4, No. 4, 1995) Williams, Trevor A.
    This paper examines whether information technology can play a strategic role in supporting regulatory reforms aimed at achieving voluntary cooperation with government regulation. Analysis of the case of electronic tax return lodgment in Australia suggests that the effects of IT are contextual, and identifies positive effects of the new IT system on voluntary cooperation. However, in this case, divergence between private and public interests and uncertainty and lack of participation in regulatory decision-making appear to restrict the development of voluntary cooperation as a primary basis for government regulation.