- Conference PaperDeliberate Individual Change Framework for Understanding Programming Practices in four Oceanography Groups(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Kuksenok, Kateryna; Aragon, Cecilia; Fogarty, James; Lee, Charlotte P.; Neff, GinaComputing affects how scientific knowledge is constructed, verified, and validated. Rapid changes in hardware capability, and software flexibility, are coupled with a volatile tool and skill set, particularly in the interdisciplinary scientific contexts of oceanography. Existing research considers the role of scientists as both users and producers of code. We focus on how an intentional, individually-initiated but socially-situated, process of uptake influences code written by scientists. We present an 18-month interview and observation study of four oceanography teams, with a focus on ethnographic shadowing of individuals undertaking code work. Through qualitative analysis, we developed a framework of deliberate individual change, which builds upon prior work on programming practices in science through the lens of sociotechnical infrastructures. We use qualitative vignettes to illustrate how our theoretical framework helps to understand changing programming practices. Our findings suggest that scientists use and produce software in a way that deliberately mitigates the potential pitfalls of their programming practice. In particular, the object and method of visualization is subject to restraint intended to prevent accidental misuse.
- Conference PaperInteraction and Outcomes in Collaborative Storytelling Systems: a Framework, a Field Study, and a Model(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Colás, Joaquim; Tapscott, Alan; Righi, Valeria; Moghnieh, Ayman; Blat, JosepIn the last decades, advances in interactive information technologies have facilitated collaborative fiction writing, which has become widespread and large-scale. This paper proposes a framework to analyze collaborative storytelling systems, made of a set of parameters divided into six conceptual areas. Four of them relate to the systems and two (process and output) to the results of the collaboration. Through this framework we can study more precisely these different factors of the systems, their interplay, and how they impact the creators’ performance. We also present a controlled extended-duration field study on collaborative storytelling, and we use this framework to comparatively analyze these observations and other relevant experiences in the field of co-creation of shared narrative spaces. As a result, we propose a human-information interaction model for collaborative narrative systems, intended to better support co-creation and address the barriers of this kind of systems turning them into new opportunities for collaboration.
- Conference PaperData Work: How Advisors and Clients Make IoT Data Accountable(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Fischer, Joel E; Crabtree, Andy; Colley, James A; Rodden, Tom; Costanza, Enrico
- Conference PaperGood practice in homecare: integrating several types of work(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Bratteteig, Tone; Eide, Ingvild
- Conference PaperAuthority as an Interactional Achievement: Exploring Deference to Smart Devices in Hospital-Based Resuscitation(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Patel, Menisha; Hartswood, Mark; Webb, Helena; Gobbi, Mary; Monger, Eloise; Jirotka, MarinaOver the years, healthcare has been an important domain for CSCW research. One significant theme carried through this body of work concerns how hospital workers coordinate their work both spatially and temporally. Much has been made of the coordinative roles played by the natural rhythms present in hospital life, and by webs of mundane artefacts such as whiteboards, post-it notes and medical records. This paper draws upon the coordinating role of rhythms and artefacts to explore the nested rhythms of the Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) protocol conducted to restore the proper heart rhythm in a patient who has suffered a cardiac arrest. We are interested in how the teams delivering CPR use various ‘smart’ assistive devices. The devices contain encoded versions of the CPR protocol and are able to sense (in a limited way) the situation in order to give instructions or feedback to the team. Using an approach informed by ethnomethodology and conversation analysis (EM/CA) we analysed video of trainee nurses using these devices as they delivered CPR in dramatized training scenarios. This analysis helped us to understand concepts such as autonomy and authority as interactional accomplishments, thus filling a gap in CSCW literature, which often glosses over how authority is formed and how it is exercised in medical teams. It also helps us consider how to respond to devices that are becoming more active in that they are being increasingly imbued with the ability to sense, discriminate and direct activity in medical settings.
- Conference PaperAugmenting Multi-Party Face-to-Face Interactions Amongst Strangers with User Generated Content(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Kytö, Mikko; McGookin, DavidWe present the results of an investigation into the role of curated representations of self, which we term Digital Selfs, in augmented multi-party face-to-face interactions. Advancements in wearable technologies (such as Head-Mounted Displays) have renewed interest in augmenting face-to-face interaction with digital content. However, existing work focuses on algorithmic matching between users, based on data-mining shared interests from individuals’ social media accounts, which can cause information that might be inappropriate or irrelevant to be disclosed to others. An alternative approach is to allow users to manually curate the digital augmentation they wish to present to others, allowing users to present those aspects of self that are most important to them and avoid undesired disclosure. Through interviews, video analysis, questionnaires and device logging, of 23 participants in 6 multi-party gatherings where individuals were allowed to freely mix, we identified how users created Digital Selfs from media largely outside existing social media accounts, and how Digital Selfs presented through HMDs were employed in multi-party interactions, playing key roles in facilitating strangers to interact with each other. We present guidance for the design of future multi-party digital augmentations in collaborative scenarios.
- Conference PaperRepacking ‘Privacy’ for a Networked World(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Crabtree, Andy; Tolmie, Peter; Knight, WillIn this paper we examine the notion of privacy as promoted in the digital economy and how it has been taken up as a design challenge in the fields of CSCW, HCI and Ubiquitous Computing. Against these prevalent views we present an ethnomethodological study of digital privacy practices in 20 homes in the UK and France, concentrating in particular upon people’s use of passwords, their management of digital content, and the controls they exercise over the extent to which the online world at large can penetrate their everyday lives. In explicating digital privacy practices in the home we find an abiding methodological concern amongst members to manage the potential ‘attack surface’ of the digital on everyday life occasioned by interaction in and with the networked world. We also find, as a feature of this methodological preoccupation, that privacy dissolves into a heterogeneous array of relationship management practices. Accordingly we propose that ‘privacy’ has little utility as a focus for design, and suggest instead that a more productive way forward would be to concentrate on supporting people’s evident interest in managing their relationships in and with the networked world.
- Conference PaperWhat if it Switched on the Sun? Exploring Creativity in a Brainstorming Session with Children Through a Vygotskyan Perspective(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Kinnula, Marianne; Molin-Juustila, Tonja; Sánchez Milara, Iván; Cortés, Marta; Riekki, JukkaWe contribute in this study a first step in theory-based understanding on how creativity in collaborative design sessions relates to the elements that are present in a creative act. These elements include group composition, objects present, practices used, and previous knowledge of the participants. The context of this study was our search for lightweight methods for technology design with children, which can be used in a school context with large groups, will require as little amount of training as possible, and can be set up quickly. We formed a mixed group, consisting of young children, an older child and an adult, with the aim of involving children in creative collaborative brainstorming during the very early phases of design, so as to come up with fruitful ideas for technology development. We report our process and examine the implications of our results in relation to different elements that trigger and affect creativity in the collaborative design process. Use of Vygotsky’s cycle of creativity as our theoretical lens together with timeline analysis method presented in the paper were essential for seeing beneath the surface of what happened in this complex, collaborative creative process. Our results can be used for further methodological development of creative collaborative sessions, both with children and adults.
- Conference PaperDesigning in between Local Government and the Public – Using Institutional Analysis in Interventions on Civic Infrastructures(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Weise, Sebastian; Coulton, Paul; Chiasson, MikeAdapting and changing the systems and technologies involved in civic engagement with local government is among the key challenges of collaborative technologies for political participation. In such contexts, both existing sets of technologies and ingrained, often formalised practices, the ‘rules of the game’, constrain any opportunity for intervention. Additionally, ‘civic’ and expert groups with conflicting agendas and divergent demands on public choices assert their influence in these transformation programmes. The article argues that established methods in collaborative systems design have thus far overlooked the role of recurring actions involved in public participation as well as the formal rules and ingrained practices that construct them. Yet, such patterns present a valuable resource for design interventions. Thus, based on an institutional approach, the article outlines a methodology for requirement gathering by mapping the relations of actors, software and their use along identifiable action situations. The method called for a dialogue between socio-technical-spatial contexts of public service and specific actions taking place within it. Drawing on a case of organising civic engagement in urban planning, the article discusses how to find and trace existing practices across social settings, information technologies and material contexts where engagements take place. The approach underscores the existing institutional contexts in inspiring, opening and constraining the opportunities to support ‘civics’.
- Conference PaperFrom Facebook to the Neighbourhood: Infrastructuring of Hybrid Community Engagement(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Mosconi, Gaia; Korn, Matthias; Reuter, Christian; Teli, Maurizio; Pipek, Volkmar