- Journal ArticleRethinking Financial Inclusion: from Access to Autonomy(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Muralidhar, Srihari Hulikal; Bossen, Claus; O’Neill, JackiFinancial inclusion has been defined and understood primarily in terms of access, thereby constituting ‘inclusion’/‘exclusion’ as a binary. This paper argues such a view to be myopic that risks treating financial inclusion as an end in itself, and not as means to a larger end. ‘Access’ oriented perspectives also fail to take into account considerations of structural factors like power asymmetries and pay inadequate attention to user practices. Through the case of auto-rickshaw drivers in Bangalore, India, and their use of Ola, a peer-to-peer taxi hailing service similar to Uber, we show that access is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to achieve financial inclusion in a substantive sense. By examining in detail, the financial needs and practices of rickshaw drivers, we identify the opportunities and constraints for digital technology to better support their financial practices and enhance their wellbeing. The paper proposes adding ‘autonomy’ and ‘affordances’ as two crucial factors to be included in the discourse on financial inclusion. Finally, we outline design implications for P2P technologies to contribute towards the financial inclusion of drivers.
- Journal ArticleExploring Indie Game Development: Team Practices and Social Experiences in A Creativity-Centric Technology Community(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Freeman, Guo; McNeese, Nathan J.The emergence of various interest-based online communities has led to the popularity of new forms of distributed creative teamwork such as citizen science, crowdsourcing, and open source software development. These new phenomena further complicate the context and content of distributed creative teamwork: what are the characteristics of these new forms of creative teams? And how do they shape people’s perceptions and social experiences of distributed creative teams? In this paper, we report our empirical research of the team characteristics and practices in a creativity-centric technology community (i.e., independent [indie] game development) in hopes of exploring these questions. Our findings show that 1) indie game development teams are formed upon shared aspirations and use various strategies to collaborate with friends or online strangers; and their team practices are achieved through a balance between individual creativity and collective vision as well as a collaborative learning for problem solving and self-improvement; and 2) these teams mediate new forms of social interaction and collaborative experiences, featuring a mix of online comradery and weak social ties, and a mix of self-confidence and self-confliction. Using this new dataset and research context, we confirm and extend existing theories of distributed creative teams in CSCW. We also argue that studying these small-scale, self-selected, and interest-based teams can inform the design of collaborative systems to support various creative teams’ social needs.
- Journal ArticleMoral and Affective Differences in U.S. Immigration Policy Debate on Twitter(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Grover, Ted; Bayraktaroglu, Elvan; Mark, Gloria; Rho, Eugenia Ha RimUnderstanding ideological conflict has been a topic of interest in CSCW, for example in Value Sensitive Design research. More specifically, understanding ideological conflict is important for studying social media platforms like Twitter, which provide the ability for people to freely express their thoughts and opinions on contentious political events. In this work, we examine Twitter data to understand the moral, affective, and cognitive differences in language use between two opposing sides of the political debate over immigration related issues in the United States in the year since the 2016 presidential election. In total, we analyzed and compared the language of 45,045 pro-immigration tweets and 11,213 anti-immigration tweets spread across this period. Based on Moral Foundations Theory used to understand ideological conflict, we found pro-immigration tweets to contain more language associated with moral foundations of harm, fairness, and loyalty. Anti-immigration tweets contained more language associated with moral foundations of authority, more words associated with cognitive rigidity and more 3rd person pronouns and negative emotion. We discuss the implications of our research for political communication over social media, and for incorporating Moral Foundations Theory into other CSCW research. We discuss the potential application of this theory for Value Sensitive Design research.
- Journal ArticleTranslation and Adoption: Exploring vocabulary work in expert-layperson encounters(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Dolata, Mateusz; Schwabe, GerhardAn advisory service encounter brings together a domain expert with a layperson in a complex life situation. Because of the different backgrounds and expertise levels, the interlocutors and meanings is an essential part of advisory services and, generally, of expert-layperson collaboration. Establishing and maintaining a common lexicon is a specific and, at the same type, frequent type of collaborative work. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what efforts this collaborative work involves and what role collaborative IT applications play in this regard. A collaborative application can well support the maintenance of a common lexicon by providing a way to externalize terms or definitions. Or it can generate additional work by providing further terms and definitions to be incorporated in the common lexicon. That puzzle gets reflected in specific design dilemmas: should the system use expert or conventional terms, what is the source of the adequate terminology, to what extent should the system adapt to the individual lexical choices, etc. This manuscript explores the work involved in establishing and maintaining a common lexicon in advisory services between an expert and a layperson. In particular, it demonstrates how external material, a dedicated collaborative application developed for supporting advisory services, impacts the maintenance of a common lexicon. First, the manuscript depicts practices involved in translation and adoption of terminology from the system into the conversation. Second, it characterizes the system’s impact on interlocutors’ vocabulary. Overall, the study contributes to the discourse on expert-layperson collaboration by characterizing an important type of work, the vocabulary work, and by depicting the role of collaborative applications for this type of work.
- Journal ArticlePlatform of Platforms: Meshing Networks, Scales and Values for a Local Sustainable Sharing Economy(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Light, Ann; Miskelly, ClodaghThe “sharing economy” has promised more sustainable use of the world’s finite resources, exploiting latency and promoting renting rather than ownership through digital networks. But do the digital brokers that use networks at global scale offer the same care for the planet as more traditional forms of sharing? We contrast the sustainability of managing idle capacity with the merits of collective local agency bred by caring-based sharing in a locality. Drawing on two studies of neighbourhood sharing in London and analysis of the meshing of local sharing initiatives, we ask how ‘relational assets’ form and build up over time in a neighbourhood, and how a platform of platforms might act as local socio-technical infrastructure to sustain alternative economies and different models of trust to those found in the scaling sharing economy. We close by proposing digital networks of support for local solidarity and resourcefulness, showing how CSCW knowledge on coordination and collaboration has a role in achieving these ends.
- Journal ArticleScholars' Perceptions of Relevance in Bibliography-based People Recommender System(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Olshannikova, Ekaterina; Olsson, Thomas; Huhtamäki, Jukka; Yao, PengCollaboration and social networking are increasingly important for academics, yet identifying relevant collaborators requires remarkable effort. While there are various networking services optimized for seeking similarities between the users, the scholarly motive of producing new knowledge calls for assistance in identifying people with complementary qualities. However, there is little empirical understanding of how academics perceive relevance, complementarity, and diversity of individuals in their profession and how these concepts can be optimally embedded in social matching systems. This paper aims to support the development of diversity-enhancing people recommender systems by exploring senior researchers’ perceptions of recommended other scholars at different levels on a similar–different continuum. To conduct the study, we built a recommender system based on topic modeling of scholars’ publications in the DBLP computer science bibliography. A study of 18 senior researchers comprised a controlled experiment and semi-structured interviewing, focusing on their subjective perceptions regarding relevance, similarity, and familiarity of the given recommendations, as well as participants’ readiness to interact with the recommended people. The study implies that the homophily bias (behavioral tendency to select similar others) is strong despite the recognized need for complementarity. While the experiment indicated consistent and significant differences between the perceived relevance of most similar vs. other levels, the interview results imply that the evaluation of the relevance of people recommendations is complex and multifaceted. Despite the inherent bias in selection, the participants could identify highly interesting collaboration opportunities on all levels of similarity.
- Journal ArticleTerritorial Functioning in Collaborative Writing: Fragmented Exchanges and Common Outcomes(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Larsen-Ledet, Ida; Korsgaard, HenrikThis paper examines territorial functioning in collaborative writing through a mixed methods study involving interviews and analysis of collaboratively authored documents. Our findings have implications for the way we think about collaborative writing as a design problem, in that current conceptualizations of collaborative writing emphasize the work context rather than the work itself, at the cost of understanding interpersonal dynamics that are central to the common process. The findings come from 23 interviews with 32 university researchers and students regarding their experiences with collaborative writing of academic texts. The analysis of these interviews is supplemented with visualizations of the revision histories of documents written by a subset of the study participants. We discuss our findings in terms of fragmented exchanges in common information spaces and consider the shared document as a mediator for the simultaneous accomplishment and negotiation of work.
- Journal ArticleOnline Harassment in the Workplace: The Role of Technology in Labour Law Disputes(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Tenório, Nelson; Bjørn, PernilleIn this paper, we explore the role technology plays in online workplace harassment as it emerges in the legal verdicts of labour law courts. Analysing 106 official legal verdicts on labour law violations, we demonstrate how technological traces are used as evidence for both indictment and the defence. We find that chat technologies risk providing a platform for online workplace harassment which extends beyond the boundaries of work and into private life. In contrast to online harassment on social media sites, online harassment in the workplace exists within situations of known audiences in hierarchical organisational structures. Thus, speaking up against a violator can have severe financial and social consequences for the survivor. Our data show that chat technology, by capturing and documenting abusive behaviours, makes harassment visible, allowing survivors to hold the harassers legally accountable. Furthermore, we find that online harassment, because it extends beyond the physical workplace, extends the legal and ethical responsibility of the employer. We argue that research on computer-supported co-operative work should consider how the design of co-operative technologies can help survivors speak up, as well as inhibit violators’ abusive behaviour. We also propose that design strategies must consider employers’ extended responsibility for moral and ethical conduct.
- Journal ArticleCyber-Physical Systems for Knowledge and Expertise Sharing in Manufacturing Contexts: Towards a Model Enabling Design(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Hoffmann, Sven Christopher; de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Abele, Darwin; Schweitzer, Marcus; Tolmie, Peter; Wulf, VolkerCyber-physical systems (CPS) are currently attracting a great deal of attention as a part of the discourse surrounding the fourth industrial revolution. Thus far, the chief focus has been upon complex architectures for supply chain-wide data exchange between intelligent machines. Here, however, we take a very different tack by examining the support CPS may offer for the exchange and acquisition of knowledge-intensive human practices in the context of manual set-up processes on modern production machines. The paper offers contributions to both CSCW and the ongoing development of CPS in three ways. Firstly, it presents a detailed empirical study of knowledge and expertise sharing practices in a production environment. Secondly, the results of this study are used as the basis of an over-arching model that was developed with the express purpose of facilitating design. Finally, CPS-based technical possibilities are matched to the practice-relevant knowledge and expertise sharing requirements captured within the model.
- Journal ArticleThe Virtual Clinic: Multi-sided Affordances in Consultation Practice(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Islind, Anna Sigridur; Snis, Ulrika Lundh; Lindroth, Tomas; Lundin, Johan; Cérna, Katerina; Steineck, GunnarTelecare has the potential to increase the quality of care while also decreasing costs. However, despite great potential, efficiency in care practices and cost reduction remain hypothetical. Within computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), one focus of telecare research has been on awareness support in distributed real-time communication in comparison to physical meetings since face-to-face consultations have been known as the “gold standard” of conducting care. Research has shown that it is hard to maintain qualities such as awareness through video-mediated meetings. In this research, the goal has not been to mimic the qualities of face-to-face consultations but rather to document the qualities of three types of patient meetings (consultations) and to understand in what kinds of situations each consultation type is a viable option. In this paper, we focus on the essential qualities of i) face-to-face consultations, ii) video-based consultations, and iii) telephone consultations and shed light on their affordances. The research contribution includes an extension of the affordance lens to incorporate socio-technical, two-sided affordances, that constitute important aspects for understanding complexity when heterogeneous actors co-existing in a practice, where affordances can differ for different “sides” in the complex practice—a view that is fruitful when dealing with heterogeneous actors and a set of analog and digital tools in a practice.