ECSCW 2019 Long Papers

Authors with most documents  

Browse

Recent Submissions

1 - 10 of 14
  • Journal Article
    Rethinking Financial Inclusion: from Access to Autonomy
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Muralidhar, Srihari Hulikal; Bossen, Claus; O’Neill, Jacki
    Financial inclusion has been defined and understood primarily in terms of access, thereby constituting ‘inclusion’/‘exclusion’ as a binary. This paper argues such a view to be myopic that risks treating financial inclusion as an end in itself, and not as means to a larger end. ‘Access’ oriented perspectives also fail to take into account considerations of structural factors like power asymmetries and pay inadequate attention to user practices. Through the case of auto-rickshaw drivers in Bangalore, India, and their use of Ola, a peer-to-peer taxi hailing service similar to Uber, we show that access is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to achieve financial inclusion in a substantive sense. By examining in detail, the financial needs and practices of rickshaw drivers, we identify the opportunities and constraints for digital technology to better support their financial practices and enhance their wellbeing. The paper proposes adding ‘autonomy’ and ‘affordances’ as two crucial factors to be included in the discourse on financial inclusion. Finally, we outline design implications for P2P technologies to contribute towards the financial inclusion of drivers.
  • Journal Article
    Online Harassment in the Workplace: The Role of Technology in Labour Law Disputes
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Tenório, Nelson; Bjørn, Pernille
    In this paper, we explore the role technology plays in online workplace harassment as it emerges in the legal verdicts of labour law courts. Analysing 106 official legal verdicts on labour law violations, we demonstrate how technological traces are used as evidence for both indictment and the defence. We find that chat technologies risk providing a platform for online workplace harassment which extends beyond the boundaries of work and into private life. In contrast to online harassment on social media sites, online harassment in the workplace exists within situations of known audiences in hierarchical organisational structures. Thus, speaking up against a violator can have severe financial and social consequences for the survivor. Our data show that chat technology, by capturing and documenting abusive behaviours, makes harassment visible, allowing survivors to hold the harassers legally accountable. Furthermore, we find that online harassment, because it extends beyond the physical workplace, extends the legal and ethical responsibility of the employer. We argue that research on computer-supported co-operative work should consider how the design of co-operative technologies can help survivors speak up, as well as inhibit violators’ abusive behaviour. We also propose that design strategies must consider employers’ extended responsibility for moral and ethical conduct.
  • Journal Article
    Cyber-Physical Systems for Knowledge and Expertise Sharing in Manufacturing Contexts: Towards a Model Enabling Design
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Hoffmann, Sven Christopher; de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Abele, Darwin; Schweitzer, Marcus; Tolmie, Peter; Wulf, Volker
    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are currently attracting a great deal of attention as a part of the discourse surrounding the fourth industrial revolution. Thus far, the chief focus has been upon complex architectures for supply chain-wide data exchange between intelligent machines. Here, however, we take a very different tack by examining the support CPS may offer for the exchange and acquisition of knowledge-intensive human practices in the context of manual set-up processes on modern production machines. The paper offers contributions to both CSCW and the ongoing development of CPS in three ways. Firstly, it presents a detailed empirical study of knowledge and expertise sharing practices in a production environment. Secondly, the results of this study are used as the basis of an over-arching model that was developed with the express purpose of facilitating design. Finally, CPS-based technical possibilities are matched to the practice-relevant knowledge and expertise sharing requirements captured within the model.
  • Journal Article
    Platform of Platforms: Meshing Networks, Scales and Values for a Local Sustainable Sharing Economy
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Light, Ann; Miskelly, Clodagh
    The “sharing economy” has promised more sustainable use of the world’s finite resources, exploiting latency and promoting renting rather than ownership through digital networks. But do the digital brokers that use networks at global scale offer the same care for the planet as more traditional forms of sharing? We contrast the sustainability of managing idle capacity with the merits of collective local agency bred by caring-based sharing in a locality. Drawing on two studies of neighbourhood sharing in London and analysis of the meshing of local sharing initiatives, we ask how ‘relational assets’ form and build up over time in a neighbourhood, and how a platform of platforms might act as local socio-technical infrastructure to sustain alternative economies and different models of trust to those found in the scaling sharing economy. We close by proposing digital networks of support for local solidarity and resourcefulness, showing how CSCW knowledge on coordination and collaboration has a role in achieving these ends.
  • Journal Article
    Scholars' Perceptions of Relevance in Bibliography-based People Recommender System
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Olshannikova, Ekaterina; Olsson, Thomas; Huhtamäki, Jukka; Yao, Peng
    Collaboration and social networking are increasingly important for academics, yet identifying relevant collaborators requires remarkable effort. While there are various networking services optimized for seeking similarities between the users, the scholarly motive of producing new knowledge calls for assistance in identifying people with complementary qualities. However, there is little empirical understanding of how academics perceive relevance, complementarity, and diversity of individuals in their profession and how these concepts can be optimally embedded in social matching systems. This paper aims to support the development of diversity-enhancing people recommender systems by exploring senior researchers’ perceptions of recommended other scholars at different levels on a similar–different continuum. To conduct the study, we built a recommender system based on topic modeling of scholars’ publications in the DBLP computer science bibliography. A study of 18 senior researchers comprised a controlled experiment and semi-structured interviewing, focusing on their subjective perceptions regarding relevance, similarity, and familiarity of the given recommendations, as well as participants’ readiness to interact with the recommended people. The study implies that the homophily bias (behavioral tendency to select similar others) is strong despite the recognized need for complementarity. While the experiment indicated consistent and significant differences between the perceived relevance of most similar vs. other levels, the interview results imply that the evaluation of the relevance of people recommendations is complex and multifaceted. Despite the inherent bias in selection, the participants could identify highly interesting collaboration opportunities on all levels of similarity.
  • Journal Article
    Translation and Adoption: Exploring vocabulary work in expert-layperson encounters
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Dolata, Mateusz; Schwabe, Gerhard
    An advisory service encounter brings together a domain expert with a layperson in a complex life situation. Because of the different backgrounds and expertise levels, the interlocutors and meanings is an essential part of advisory services and, generally, of expert-layperson collaboration. Establishing and maintaining a common lexicon is a specific and, at the same type, frequent type of collaborative work. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what efforts this collaborative work involves and what role collaborative IT applications play in this regard. A collaborative application can well support the maintenance of a common lexicon by providing a way to externalize terms or definitions. Or it can generate additional work by providing further terms and definitions to be incorporated in the common lexicon. That puzzle gets reflected in specific design dilemmas: should the system use expert or conventional terms, what is the source of the adequate terminology, to what extent should the system adapt to the individual lexical choices, etc. This manuscript explores the work involved in establishing and maintaining a common lexicon in advisory services between an expert and a layperson. In particular, it demonstrates how external material, a dedicated collaborative application developed for supporting advisory services, impacts the maintenance of a common lexicon. First, the manuscript depicts practices involved in translation and adoption of terminology from the system into the conversation. Second, it characterizes the system’s impact on interlocutors’ vocabulary. Overall, the study contributes to the discourse on expert-layperson collaboration by characterizing an important type of work, the vocabulary work, and by depicting the role of collaborative applications for this type of work.
  • Journal Article
    Exploring Indie Game Development: Team Practices and Social Experiences in A Creativity-Centric Technology Community
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Freeman, Guo; McNeese, Nathan J.
    The emergence of various interest-based online communities has led to the popularity of new forms of distributed creative teamwork such as citizen science, crowdsourcing, and open source software development. These new phenomena further complicate the context and content of distributed creative teamwork: what are the characteristics of these new forms of creative teams? And how do they shape people’s perceptions and social experiences of distributed creative teams? In this paper, we report our empirical research of the team characteristics and practices in a creativity-centric technology community (i.e., independent [indie] game development) in hopes of exploring these questions. Our findings show that 1) indie game development teams are formed upon shared aspirations and use various strategies to collaborate with friends or online strangers; and their team practices are achieved through a balance between individual creativity and collective vision as well as a collaborative learning for problem solving and self-improvement; and 2) these teams mediate new forms of social interaction and collaborative experiences, featuring a mix of online comradery and weak social ties, and a mix of self-confidence and self-confliction. Using this new dataset and research context, we confirm and extend existing theories of distributed creative teams in CSCW. We also argue that studying these small-scale, self-selected, and interest-based teams can inform the design of collaborative systems to support various creative teams’ social needs.
  • Journal Article
    Moral and Affective Differences in U.S. Immigration Policy Debate on Twitter
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Grover, Ted; Bayraktaroglu, Elvan; Mark, Gloria; Rho, Eugenia Ha Rim
    Understanding ideological conflict has been a topic of interest in CSCW, for example in Value Sensitive Design research. More specifically, understanding ideological conflict is important for studying social media platforms like Twitter, which provide the ability for people to freely express their thoughts and opinions on contentious political events. In this work, we examine Twitter data to understand the moral, affective, and cognitive differences in language use between two opposing sides of the political debate over immigration related issues in the United States in the year since the 2016 presidential election. In total, we analyzed and compared the language of 45,045 pro-immigration tweets and 11,213 anti-immigration tweets spread across this period. Based on Moral Foundations Theory used to understand ideological conflict, we found pro-immigration tweets to contain more language associated with moral foundations of harm, fairness, and loyalty. Anti-immigration tweets contained more language associated with moral foundations of authority, more words associated with cognitive rigidity and more 3rd person pronouns and negative emotion. We discuss the implications of our research for political communication over social media, and for incorporating Moral Foundations Theory into other CSCW research. We discuss the potential application of this theory for Value Sensitive Design research.
  • Journal Article
    The Missing “Turn to Practice” in the Digital Transformation of Industry
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Lewkowicz, Myriam; Liron, Romain
    This paper reports on a “Industry 4.0” project supported by the government through the French public investment bank. This project was launched by a major industrial actor in the gas domain and aims at equipping its factories with digital technologies, and at connecting all these factories through a centralized supervision center, named Operational and Optimization Remote Center (OORC). Based on our observation in production sites and the OORC, we present the new organization of work that takes place in this context, and the digital artifact that was introduced to support it. We analyze its use and identify some failures related to the gap between its features and the existing documentation practice in the factories. We then claim that industry has to “turn to practice” to accomplish its digital transformation. This paper contributes to what we foresee as a research agenda for CSCW researchers wishing to contribute to the fourth industrial revolution and the related digital transformation of work in industrial settings.
  • Journal Article
    Flexible Turtles and Elastic Octopi: Exploring Agile Practice in Knowledge Work
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Erickson, Ingrid; Menezes, Deepti; Raheja, Raghav; Shetty, Thanushree
    This paper takes as its starting place the rich context of many knowledge workers today—highly distributed, increasing project focused, typically atypical days, infrastructural—and attempts to push past extant descriptions of their practices as ‘flexible’. Using empirical data informed by a practice theory lens, we expand the understanding of flexibility with regard to work by augmenting how worker disposition, as well as the ability to engage with agility in dynamic circumstances, should be considered as a factor when examining and designing for this population. We make several contributions of interest to the wider CSCW community. First, we distinguish between those who showcase flexible practices and those who proactively orient around flexibility. We call this second group ‘elastic workers’. Second, we raise new questions for us as scholars and designers keen to exploit the conceptual and pragmatic intersection of technology and work. These questions create opportunities to explore different methods for understanding complex phenomena such as flexibility, as well as understanding how we might design for this phenomenon with more foresight in the future.