- Conference PaperSocial Icebreakers Everywhere: A Day In The Life(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Mitchell, Robb; Encinas, Enrique; Kirman, BenDeveloping systems to spark face-to-face interactions between strangers is a recurring challenge that may benefit from drawing together inspiration from many different creative fields. This paper presents a design fiction that makes accessible over 50 diverse examples of objects and environments that might help foster new social encounters. Unlike most design fiction, this narrative is not about the future, but about an alternative present. The designs discussed are all real objects - either functional prototypes or interactive exhibits. The fiction is that these already existing artefacts are a commonplace, and not particularly remarkable part of the everyday. Thus the strange is made familiar by unusual designs being presented as a universal normality. Each individual element is "real" in that it has not been invented for the purpose of this review, however the overarching story uses a fictional frame to place all this work in the same world. We hope immersion in this narrative can enrich perspectives and debates around designing to support social interaction.
- Conference PaperHow the local domestication of a teleconsultation solution is influenced by the adoption of a national policy?(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Cormi, Clément; Abou Amsha, Khuloud; Tixier, Matthieu; Lewkowicz, MyriamTelemedicine is presented by the French government and regional authorities in France as key to guaranteeing equal access to healthcare. Research on telemedicine has highlighted how it impacts the work practices of healthcare professionals and how its adoption is challenging. In this context, we are interested in understanding how the discourses and policy on equal access to healthcare are implemented and how they impact the deployment of telemedicine solutions in practice. We are currently studying the deployment of a teleconsultation solution for nursing homes inside a group of hospitals in Northeast France. On the basis of on-site visits at four nursing homes and interviews with the different stakeholders, we analyzed the domestication of the teleconsultation solution. Our first results highlight that the defined policy is useful to support the deployment of the technology but does not appear as sufficient for its incorporation into regular work practices. Our hypothesis to understand this obstacle is that nursing homes would need to endorse a new role to engage in further incorporation and later stage of domestication, which may be prevented by their existing ecosystem.
- Conference PaperConversational Crowdsourcing for Older Adults: a Wikipedia Chatbot Concept(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Skorupska, Kinga; Warpechowski, Kamil; Nielek, Radoslaw; Kopec, WieslawBased on our research on the Wikipedia interface and crowdsourcing with older adults, we propose a conversational interface to streamline Wikipedia editing, engage new contributors and increase their well-being. The use of a conversational interface may mitigate the problem of a steep learning curve for new contributors to encourage more people to contribute to Wikipedia, and thus, little by little, make it more accurate, consistent and democratic. This solution can also negotiate some of the barriers apparent in older adults’ interaction with the Wikipedia interface. To achieve these goals, we conceptualized a friendly chatbot called "Gizmo" which inverts the human-chatbot interaction paradigm by making the user be the one to aid the chatbot. In doing so, we explored some of the requirements and challenges associated with the design of a conversational interface to enable Wiki contributions. These include the choice of the appropriate task to crowdsource, in our case the infobox translation verification, the initiation of the conversation as well as the motivational component with key disaffection indicators. At the same time, we discuss some opportunities within the domain of CSCW related to the design and applications of novel conversational crowdsourcing interfaces.
- Conference PaperA system design to support outside activities of older adults using smart urban objects(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Fietkau, Julian; Stojko, LauraDuring outside activities, elderly people encounter different challenges than young people. Those difficulties impede their motivation to pursue outside activities. To counter this problem from a human-computer interaction perspective, we propose a support system for seniors to improve their motivation and subjective safety while undertaking outside activities by coordinating smart urban objects. Drawing from an extensive empirical requirements analysis, we identify typical barriers experienced by seniors for which networked smart urban objects may provide assistance. We discuss a conceptual description of an activity support system: the system aggregates user profile data with information about the urban space to suggest possible activities, the elderly user chooses an activity and receives navigational assistance to increase their motivation and feeling of safety while undertaking the chosen activity. Finally, we discuss our approach regarding challenges such as user autonomy, privacy and real-world deployments, which need to be considered in future implementation and evaluation phases of the system.
- Conference PaperTime Matters: Flexi-time and women's retention in the 24/7 workplace(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Matilal, OindrilaHistorically, the ability to exercise agency over the scheduling of working-time has shaped women’s retention in the workforce. Therefore, policies such as flexi-time, that claim to give employees control over the scheduling of working hours, should be beneficial to the retention of women in paid employment. The digitally-mediated service sector is considered family-friendly partly because of the rhetoric that work can be carried out anytime, anywhere. Literature in the CSCW tradition has focused on the design and use of technology to facilitate collaboration. The issue of how the agency of workers over scheduling of working-time plays out in practice and its implications for workforce participation have not been explored. I argue that flexitime is a situated practice embedded in a complex adaptive socio-technical system. By studying time practices of women who have returned to work after maternity in the Indian software services sector using Rob Stones’ strong structuration theory as a framework, I hope to contribute conceptually to the CSCW tradition by providing insights on the role of the agency of the worker in the processes that shape temporal patterns in collaborative work. These insights may be used to indicate possibilities for design that enables greater worker agency over time.
- Conference PaperAI Ethics and Customer Care: Some Considerations from the Case of “Intelligent Sales”(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Wolf, Christine T.This note considers the topic of AI ethics as it relates to applied, industrial AI projects. In particular, it examines “intelligent sales,” a strategic management concept that envisions the enhancement of workflows within a sales organization with the use of Big Data and artificial intelligence (AI). This note examines common depictions of intelligent sales campaigns in management literature, identifying key topics in these discourses: data fusion, responsive customer care, automation, and streamlined delivery. We focus on ways in which intelligent sales is envisioned to enrich the customer-sales relationship through the use of Big Data and AI, surfacing ethical considerations around: training data and the use of AI outputs in everyday work practices. This paper contributes to discourses on the fairness, accountability, and transparency (FAccT*) of algorithmic systems by raising a number of emergent concerns in enterprise AI applications and in particular some considerations from the emergent management concept intelligent sales.
- Conference PaperNetworks of Practices: Exploring Design Opportunities for Interconnected Practices(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Lawo, Dennis; Engelbutzeder, Philip; Esau, Margarita; Stevens, GunnarFor over a decade, researchers from the practice-centered computing community are taking social practices as a unit of design. While the first generation focused on a social practice in isolation, more recent work argues for the (inter-)connections of mutually influencing practices as the primary unit of design. We discuss these current approaches to motivate the notion of a network of practices. Utilizing the case of food practices, we construct and analyze a network populated by the answers of 60 participants. Based on this network we suggest how to identify central elements and clusters as well as points for intervention within the overall network, but also within and in-between clusters of practices. Based on this, our work critically discusses how an understanding of practices as a network could improve practice-based research and design.
- Conference PaperModel-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) as computer-supported approach for cooperative systems development(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Schmidt, Marvin Michael; Stark, RainerWith rising globalization and a trend towards Cyberphysical systems (CPSs) as well as smart products the demand for cross-company and interdisciplinary collaboration increases. To handle the complexity of these systems and products Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), as an enhanced form of Systems Engineering (SE), has emerged in engineering and is adopted by many companies. While this approach tries to cope with the current complexity trends, it does address the collaborative aspect of product creation only in a small scope. This paper shall address the combination of MBSE and collaboration in engineering to form a computer-supported approach for collaborative systems development.
- Conference PaperEnvisioning a Shared Checklist Display to Support Teamwork During Emergency Medical Care(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Kulp, Leah; Sarcevic, AleksandraInformation technology and systems in healthcare are becoming increasingly complex and dynamic, requiring design approaches that consider not only providers’ information needs and work practices, but also their perceptions and expectations about technology. In this paper, we describe an exploratory study conducted to assess the feasibility and impact of a shared checklist display for supporting teamwork during trauma resuscitations. Using the concept of technological frames, we explore how members of multidisciplinary emergency medical teams perceive current technology and what they expect from a future shared checklist display. Our results showed discrepancies in team members’ perceptions of technology and its roles. Some care providers envisioned a shared checklist display as a tool for achieving a global view of the process, improving communication and maintaining situation awareness. Others perceived it as a point of distraction, where team members may be checking each other’s work to ensure accuracy of documentation. These requirements and limitations extend beyond the capacity of a simple checklist, while also shifting the privacy of work from individuals to the entire team. We conclude by discussing design implications for a future shared display and how shifting to a multi-display environment within a safety-critical context may transform work practices.
- Conference PaperUnderstanding data and cooperation in a public sector arena.(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Seidelin, Cathrine; Lee, Charlotte P.; Dittrich, YvonneThis note explores how data work takes place in a public sector arena. We report on findings from a 3-year research project with a Danish organisation, which, amongst other things, aimed to improve current data practices in the organisation. We make use of the notion of ‘social arenas’ as a lens to understand the complex setting the organisation is situated in. We find that data work in this context takes place among multiple stakeholders and requires cooperation across organisational boundaries. Moreover, changes in data practices in one site changes cooperation among multiple stakeholders in the arena. Additionally, we develop a diagram of this complex setting, which constitutes an analytical tool that supports our understanding of the site (or sites) of intervention where data work is examined. Our study contributes to the field of CSCW by proposing and showing how the notion of sub-arena helps to comprehend the cooperation and interaction within the surprisingly complex public sector and locate the (sub-)arenas and stakeholders affected by a change in how data is provided and used.