- Text DocumentCollective Interaction – Let’s join forces(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Krogh, Peter Gall; Petersen, Marianne GravesIn this paper we introduce the concept of Collective Interaction. Collective Interaction involves designing for co-experiences among co-located people sharing collective resources for controlling interfaces. The particular approach we explore in this paper is to instrumentalize collaboration, such that the interaction itself is a matter of collective action. To illustrate this we provide an interaction model and a definition of Collective Interaction, and present two design cases based on this model, one in the context of a public library and one in a home-context. We outline design rationales, and discuss experiences from trial use of the prototypes.
- Text DocumentDesign issues for supporting collaborative creativity(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Herrmann, ThomasTechnical support of collaborative creativity is a complex challenge because the interacting people usually have differing backgrounds, thought processes or self expression, and their collaboration is only weakly structured and should be highly flexible. We outline the heterogeneous characteristics of creativity and their dimensions, and describe the barriers to be overcome. On this basis, five CSCW-oriented design heuristics are derived: Supporting the large picture – the visualization of rich material
- Text DocumentEngineering 2.0: Exploring Lightweight Technologies for the Virtual Enterprise(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Larsson, Andreas; Ericson, Åsa; Larsson, Tobias; Randall, DaveIn a Virtual Enterprise setting, it becomes increasingly important to make sure that knowledge and expertise created in one discipline, domain or company is correctly understood and quickly utilized by other actors throughout the value chain. This paper discusses why lightweight technology seems like a particularly promising concept in this context, and why Virtual Enterprises could benefit from learning more about tag clouds, mashups, wikis, and other ‘lightweight’ technologies, as complements to the large-scale, arguably ‘heavyweight’, product life-cycle management (PLM) systems of current practice. The paper draws on data from a number of product development projects – ranging from the development of manufacturing tools and industrial drive systems, to aircraft engines and armored terrain vehicles. The paper identifies both the kinds of problem typically experienced in the Virtual Enterprise, in relation to knowledge sharing, and explores ways in which lightweight technology might be adapted to solve them.
- Text DocumentEngineering 2.0: Exploring Lightweight Technologies for the Virtual Enterprise(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Larsson, Andreas; Ericson, Åsa; Larsson, Tobias; Randall, DaveIn a traditional business partnership, the partner companies are under contractual obligation to share data, information, and knowledge through one or several information systems that the leading firm decides. In such a case, the issue of sharing “whatever needs to be shared” is settled in contracts before any action is taken, however, also giving the implications that sharing expertise becomes a heavy and time-consuming activity. In turn, it can be argued that the heavy administration affects the lead time of product development negatively since the necessary input flows are delayed. In addition, the adaptation to certain predefined collaborative information systems is both expensive and resource-consuming (e.g., educating staff to use them). Also, the system might not be adaptable to the existing internal technology structure, causing a “translation” procedure, again taking up resources. Another structure for collaboration is a network or alliance of independent partner companies. One motivation for a network structure is that the partners can join or leave it more easily. A reason for joining and staying is an implicit sense of knowledge sharing (Tomkins 2001) and access to a “win–win” environment. Furthermore, the partners can be linked by information technology, i.e., forming a virtual structure rather than a physical one. The technologies provide the channels with additional knowledge. In a best-case scenario, a company would get access to a wide range of useful competences, and in a worst-case scenario the company would be drained of its core competences. Accordingly, at least two considerations for joining a partner network can be considered. First, the resources needed to couple the technologies have to be reasonable, due to the underpinning logic of going in and out of more than one network. Second, the company has to identify its knowledge base and evaluate the prospective gains and losses of sharing its expertise.
- Text DocumentAsynchronous vs. synchronous cooperation in innovative design organization(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Quesada, Thierry Février; Darses, FrançoiseTeamwork collaborative activities involve both asynchronous and synchronous cooperation. In this paper, we describe how these cooperation modes are performed during an innovative design process in the automotive industry. Asynchronous cooperation is performed through exchanges on a portal, while synchronous cooperation occurs in face-to-face meetings. We compare the cooperation modes, regarding the team’s tasks. It is highlighted that synchronous cooperation marked out the project course, and is expanded through asynchronous cooperation. But some tasks are preferably performed on asynchronous mode, such as those involved in project steering. Asynchronous cooperation better supports conveyance communication processes (sharing out information), rather than convergence communication processes (shared meaning of design). In contrast, synchronous cooperation offers efficient push and pull of information, making use of both conveyance and convergence.
- Text DocumentFrom the crowd to communities: New interfaces for social tagging(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Zhou, Chao; Bénel, AurélienSocial tagging is intimately linked to ‘tag cloud’, the visualization apparatus which is intended to bring the ‘wisdom of crowds’. But what is suited for the ‘crowd’ may be not for communities. In this article, we propose a new interface for social tagging in collaborative systems that includes several improvements: multi-viewpoints, multi-tags selection, and tags relations. We illustrate this apparatus on the collaborative analysis of a scientific archive.
- Text DocumentPeople Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Braun, Simone; Schmidt, AndreasCompetence Management approaches suggest promising instruments for more effective resource allocation, knowledge management, learning support, and human resource development in general. However, especially on the level of individual employees, such approaches have so far not been able to show sustainable success on a larger scale. Piloting applications like expert finders have often failed in the long run because of incomplete and outdated data, apart from social and organizational barriers. To overcome these problems, we propose a collaborative competence management approach. In this approach, we combine Web 2.0-style bottom-up processes with organizational top-down processes. We addressed this problem as a collaborative ontology construction problem of which the conceptual foundation is the Ontology Maturing Process Model. In order to realize the Ontology Maturing Process Model for competence management, we have built the AJAX-based semantic social bookmarking application SOBOLEO that offers task-embedded competence ontology development and an easy-to-use interface.
- Text DocumentAnticipative Awareness in a Groupware System(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Prinz, Wolfgang; Hinrichs, Elke; Kireyev, IrinaThis work presents a new approach in the area of awareness in groupware. We have made a first step towards supporting both conventional, past-oriented and anticipative, futureoriented awareness by suggesting a conceptual model for defining expectations of actions in a shared workspace and for an automatic check and notification of fulfillment or non-fulfillment of these expectations. Our approach is people-centric and is based on a real-life mental state: the state of anticipating certain events in a workspace. After having studied previous theoretical and practical research on awareness and having analyzed several current collaborative systems, we developed a conceptual model of expectations in shared workspaces. We then implemented our approach as an add-on package to the shared workspace system BSCW. Having evaluated our system with a group of BSCW users we analyzed their feed-back and came to the conclusion that all test users declared the concept of anticipative awareness useful and the implementation on the whole usable. Based on the comments of the test users we propose several improvements of the implementation.
- Text DocumentDynamism and Data Management in Distributed, Collaborative Working Environments(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Kipp, Alexander; Schubert, Lutz; Assel, Matthias; Fernando, TerrenceDue to globalization and environmental challenges, there is a growing interest in adopting collaborative technologies to support distributed virtual enterprises to work as virtual teams, reducing time, cost and need for travel. This paper presents the approach taken by the CoSpaces project  in developing a collaborative technology platform for distributed engineering organizations. In particular, this paper overviews the ongoing work of the “Dynamic Session Management System” which provides the dynamic integration of decision making and communication tools within the entire CoSpaces software framework. It also reports on how data management and sharing within this dynamic infrastructure is handled while addressing the security concerns of certain individual companies.
- Text DocumentEnabling biomedical data analysis workflows: the Multi-Knowledge collaborative platform(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Conte, GianniThe objective of the Multi-Knowledge project is the development and validation of a collaborative IT platform for knowledge management, allowing geographically dispersed groups of researchers, dealing with different data sources as well as technological and organisational contexts, to create, exchange and manipulate new knowledge in a seamless fashion. The ambition is also to define a methodological framework that can easily be extended to include additional sources of knowledge and expertise (biomedical data, images, environmental data), and can be applied to wider sectors of medical research. After two years of work, the Multi-Knowledge platform is almost complete and the second pilot experiment is being carried out. In this paper we describe the Multi-Knowledge project, starting from user requirements which have driven the development process, then going into details of the different modules which compose the platform, and finally illustrating the experiments which are being conducted across different sites.