- Text DocumentCooperation and Ubiquitous Computing: an Architecture Towards their Integration(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Cabitza, Federico; Locatelli, Marco P.; Simone, CarlaThe paper discusses the relations between Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and cooperation pointing to two reference scenarios. UC technologies are still in a early stage: however, it is possible to envisage an evolution that makes smart objects pervasive in work settings. Under the hypothesis that these objects are likely to have very a specialized functionality, the smart environment has to possess distributed inferential capabilities to complement them toward an adaptive support to both individual and collaborative behaviors. CASMAS is a model informing an architecture to design collaborative UC environments: it combines inference capabilities with the management of contextual information that is modulated according to the structure of physical and logical spaces.
- Text DocumentTorres, a Conceptual Framework for Articulation Work across Boundaries(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Cabitza, Federico; Sarini, Marcello; Simone, Carla; Telaro, MicheleIn this paper we present Torres, a conceptual framework that supports people belonging to different groups to articulate their activities. Our work is based on observations of how healthcare practitioners manage the interactions occurring when the patients' care crosses the borders of a healthcare facility. On the basis of previous works on reconciliation and of our observations, we aim to provide a framework to understand these interactions and to computationally support them so to convey the local knowledge needed both to guarantee the continuity of care and to promote the articulation of the related activities.
- Text DocumentOn a Mission without a Home Base: Conceptualizing Nomadicity in Student Group Work(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Bogdan, Cristian; Rossitto, Chiara; Normark, Maria; Jorge, Pedro "Adler"; Eklundh, Kerstin SeverinsonWe are observing that the current body of CSCW research is focusing either on stable workplaces with a single cooperative unit or on mobile work, with highly mobile professionals. We are attempting to fill the gap between workplace and mobile with a field study of student work, which we regard as exhibiting a high degree of nomadicity. After comparing student work with centres of coordination and mobility work, we unpack the notion of nomadicity as a work condition, constituted by a complex of discontinuities, leading to work partitioning and re-assembly. We draw design and methodological implications.
- Text DocumentTo Share or Not to Share - Distributed Collaboration in Interactive Workspaces(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Sundholm, HilleviWe followed an international research network that holds regular meetings in technology-enhanced working environments. The team is geographically distributed and uses a set of technical artefacts to support their collaborative work, including a videoconferencing system and a media space. We have been studying how mutual understanding is created between the team members and the role that visual representations play in this work. Our approach has been to analyse the initiatives and responses made by the team members. The meeting situation is complex because the team members are participating either in both video and audio, or audio only. In this multi-channel setting it often has to be clarified who is attending, and there is also a risk of team members being forgotten when they are present only on audio. The communication space is limited; when many want to participate in the communicative activity, it becomes harder to make successful initiatives; moreover, the roles of the team members seem to become accentuated in the distributed setting. The media space is restricted in that it only allows one person to be active at the time; this causes problems when several persons want to contribute simultaneously. Some of these limitations in the system are overcome through verbal articulations of actions.
- Text DocumentThe Underwhelming Effects of Location-Awareness of Others on Collaboration in a Pervasive Game(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Nova, Nicolas; Girardin, Fabien; Molinari, Gaëlle; Dillenbourg, PierreIn this paper we seek to empirically study the use of location-awareness of others in the context of mobile collaboration. We report on a field experiment carried out using a pervasive game we developed called CatchBob!. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we show the underwhelming effects of automating location-awareness. Our results indeed shows that automating this process does not necessarily improve the task performance and that it can be detrimental to socio-cognitive processes involved in collaboration such as communication or the modeling of partners' intents. The paper concludes with some potential impacts for location-based application practitioners.
- Conference PaperCollaboration: Bad Words and Strong Documents(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Buckland, MichaelThe use of communications technologies and artifacts in cooperative systems and the integration of cooperative systems in organization settings can be seen as a special case of the broader use of communications and artifacts in society. The broader system is of interest to those concerned with the documents and documentation. In this talk we will address two themes: 1. Language is cultural and evolves within communities of discourse. Every little community evolves its own dialect through metaphor and negotiation. Collaboration between individuals from different communities necessarily involves some dissonance, both in terms of what words mean (denote) and what they imply (connote) and, therefore, what words will be effective and socially acceptable. These issues extend broadly across the classification, categorization, and naming practices which form an important part of the infrastructure of collaborative activities. 2. Documents have enormous social power. My passport is more powerful than I am: It can cross frontiers without me, but I cannot cross frontiers without it. Analysis of the character and role of documents leads to an expansive functional definition of document which converges with the notion of artefact in the design of cooperative systems. These two related issues will be examined from the perspective of the study of documents and documentation.
- Text DocumentA Practical Sense of Knowing: Exploring Awareness Strategies in a Mobile Workplace(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Orre, Carljohan; Watts, Leon A.This paper presents and discusses strategies used by homecare workers to establish and maintain awareness in a mobile workplace. It capitalizes on data derived from a longitudinal translocal ethnographic study of homecare and the utilization of mobile technology. The study exposes two distinct dimensions of the work context, denoted the Case and Base dimensions, which are used as vehicles to describe situations of collaborative practice that occur (1) in a coordination meeting, (2) on a homecare visit, and (3) in an on-the-fly ‘illicit’ use of mobile technology. We propose a new conception of collaborative awareness as a ‘practical sense of knowing’. Findings from the ethnographic study are consistent with a well-worn distinction between “knowing that”, declarative knowledge, and “knowing how”, procedural knowledge. Conventional structures of organizational control, encoded both procedurally and as declarations of responsibility, are routinely broken and reformed. This happens as workers devise new strategies in order to maintain the keen sense of their collaborative situation required to sustain an orderly workplace.
- Text DocumentAnnotations: A Functionality to support Cooperation, Coordination and Awareness in the Electronic Medical Record(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Bringay, Sandra; Barry, Catherine; Charlet, JeanThe interest of the Electronic Medical Record EMR is from now on obvious. However, Health Professionals still not have at their disposal tools allowing them to support their cooperative practices. In the French DocPatient project, we try to improve practitioners' cooperation when they use the medical documents by implementing a document-based EMR. Our assumption is that a best integration of the way they use these medical documents in the EMR design will improve its utility, its use and its acceptance. In this paper, we show that annotations practices must be transposed in the EMR to reinforce collaboration, coordination and awareness.
- Text DocumentBeyond Electronic Patient's File: Assisting Conversations in a Healthcare Network(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Bénard, Valérie; Lewkowicz, Myriam; Zacklad, ManuelHealthcare networks have been created to meet new health requirements. This new mode of organization gives healthcare professionals with different competences overall patient coverage. The aim of this study was to define tools supporting cooperation between these professionals. An ethnographic study on a healthcare network carried out during a period of one year has helped to understand how these networks function and what their requirements are. In this paper, we present the network studied, and describe a theoretical framework which can be used to analyze its activities; we focus in particular on the transactions taking place during face-to-face meetings, and we conclude that in order to cooperate efficiently, professionals need a coordination tool which is more than just an electronic patient file. We end this paper by suggesting guidelines for computer-supported cooperative activities in the field of healthcare networks.
- Text DocumentMemetic: An Infrastructure for Meeting Memory(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Shum, Simon Buckingham; Slack, Roger; Daw, Michael; Juby, Ben; Rowley, Andrew; Bachler, Michelle; Mancini, Clara; Michaelides, Danius T.; Procter, Rob; Roure, David De; Chown, Tim; Hewitt, TerryThis paper introduces the Memetic toolkit for recording the normally ephemeral interactions conducted via internet video conferencing, and making these navigable and manipulable in linear and non-linear ways. We introduce two complementary interaction visualizations: argumentation-based concept maps to elucidate the conceptual structure of the discourse using a visual language, and interactive event timelines generated from the meeting metadata. We discuss in detail the affordances of Memetic's tools, in particular the Compendium hypermedia mapping tool, and the Meeting Replay tool that renders the semantic navigation indices into the videoconference replays. Additionally, with respect to methodology and evaluation, we describe how we are engaging diverse end-user communities in the process of designing and deploying these tools.