- Conference PaperConstructing Awareness Through Speech, Gesture, Gaze and Movement During a Time-Critical Medical Task(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Zhang, Zhan; Sarcevic, AleksandraWe conducted a video-based study to examine how medical teams construct and maintain awareness of what is going on in the environment during a time-critical, collaborative task—endotracheal intubation. Drawing on a theme that characterizes work practices in collaborative work settings—reading a scene—we examine both vocal and non-vocal actions (e.g., speech, body movement, gesture, gaze) of team members participating in this task to understand how these actions are used to display status of one’s work or to acquire information about the work status of others. While each action modality was helpful in constructing awareness to some extent, it posed different challenges, requiring team members to combine both vocal and non-vocal actions to achieve awareness about each other’s activities and their temporal order. We conclude by discussing different types of non-vocal actions, their purpose, and the need for computational support in this dynamic work setting.
- Conference PaperIntertext: On Connecting Text in the Building Process(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Christensen, Lars RuneActors in the building process are critically dependent on a corpus of written text that draws the distributed work tasks together. This paper introduces, on the basis of a field study, the concepts of corpus, intertext and intertextuality to the analysis of text in cooperative work practice. This paper shows that actors in the building process create intertext (connections) between complementary texts, in a particular situation and for a particular task. This has an integrating effect on the building process. Several types of intertextuality, including the complementary type, the intratextual type and the mediated type, may constitute the intertext of a particular task. By employing the concepts of corpus, intertext and intertextuality with respect to the study of the building process, this paper outlines an approach to the investigation of text in cooperative work.
- Conference PaperAnalyzing Collaborative Reflection Support: A Content Analysis Approach(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Prilla, Michael; Nolte, Alexander; Blunk, Oliver; Liedtke, Dennis; Renner, BettinaCollaborative reflection helps groups to learn from work experiences for future work. Although its potential has been recognized and initial work is available, insights on how tools support people in collaborative reflection at work are scarce. We present an approach to analyze collaborative reflection support based on content analysis and an initial study in which it was applied to four cases of using a tool for collaborative reflection. From this we derive design suggestions such as levels of support for different groups and support for the creation of results from collaborative reflection. Our work contributes to CSCW by showing how tools can foster collaborative reflection at work.
- Conference Paper3D Printing with Marginalized Children—An Exploration in a Palestinian Refugee Camp(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Stickel, Oliver; Hornung, Dominik; Aal, Konstantin; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, VolkerWe work with a multi-national network of computer clubs for families and children called come_IN. In two such clubs (located in Palestinian refugee camps in the West Bank), we worked with children on playful approaches concerning 3D modeling and 3D printing within a five-week, qualitative field study. Based on this study, we report on the achievements as well as on the difficulties of digital fabrication and of “Making” in developmental and educational contexts. The benefits are related to an overarching theme of self-expression where the main focus was on dimensions as playfulness, approachable complexity, individualization, immediacy and physicality and collaboration as well as motivation. The problematic aspects were mostly related to socio-technical limitations concerning the themes of orientation and camera control, the lack of coordination and collaboration features, usability and UX issues as well as the construction and limitations of current 3D printers. Based on those findings, we have derived implications for the design and the appropriation of future systems for digital fabrication with children, especially in developmental/educational settings, such as improvements of their collaboration support or better feedback mechanisms regarding the system status towards the end user.
- Conference PaperKeeping Distributed Care Together: Medical Summaries Reconsidered(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Mønsted, TroelsSummaries in the medical record have traditionally offered health professionals good cognitive support by guiding reading of the medical record and supporting communication and collaboration in clinical teams. However, because of increased distribution of chronic care and fragmentation of the medical record, summaries are becoming increasingly incomplete and have lost some of their ability to mediate collaboration in clinical teams and support situated sensemaking. Based on findings from a project aimed at studying and designing IT to support collaboration among health professionals in distributed, chronic care, this article present a detail study of current use of summaries and discusses how a new type of summary can be designed to offer better support for distributed, chronic care. Overall I argue that we must maintain an appropriate balance between structure and flexibility, while reconsidering the readership, the authorship, and the maintenance of summaries.
- Conference PaperMining Programming Activity to Promote Help(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Carter, Jason; Dewan, PrasunWe have investigated techniques for mining programming activity to offer help to programmers in difficulty. We have developed a (a) difficulty-detection mechanism based on the notion of command ratios; (b) difficulty-classification mechanism that uses both command ratios and rates; and (c) collaboration mechanism that provides both workspace and difficulty awareness. Our studies involve interviews and lab and field experiments, and indicate that (a) it is possible to mine programming activity to reliably detect and classify difficulties, (b) it is possible to build a collaborative environment to offer opportunistic help, (c) programmers are not unnerved by and find it useful to receive unsolicited help arriving in response to automatically detected difficulties, (d) the acceptable level of privacy in a help-promotion tool depends on whether the developers in difficulty are student or industrial programmers, and whether they have been exposed earlier to a help promotion tool, and (e) difficulty detection can filter out spurious help requests and reduce the need for meetings required to poll for rare difficulty events.
- Conference PaperSocial Media-Based Expertise Evidence(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Yogev, Arnon; Guy, Ido; Ronen, Inbal; Zwerdling, Naama; Barnea, MayaSocial media provides a fertile ground for expertise location. The public nature of the data supports expertise inference with little privacy infringement and, in addition, presentation of direct and detailed evidence for an expert’s skillfulness in the queried topic. In this work, we study the use of social media for expertise evidence. We conducted two user surveys of enterprise social media users within a large global organization, in which participants were asked to rate anonymous experts based on artificial and real evidence originating from different types of social media data. Our results indicate that the social media data types perceived most convincing as evidence are not necessarily the ones from which expertise can be inferred most precisely or effectively. We describe these results in detail and discuss implications for designers and architects of expertise location systems.
- Conference Paper"It’s About Business not Politics": Software Development Between Palestinians and Israelis(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Boulus-Rødje, Nina; Bjørn, Pernille; Ghazawneh, AhmadThis paper focuses on the collaboration in an Israeli-Palestinian tech start-up company. We investigate the strategies enacted by the IT developers for managing the political dynamics and making collaboration possible under the highly challenging political conditions. We found that one of the key strategies was explicitly separating the work domain of software development from the domain of politics. We argue that the IT developers manage to collaborate by displacing the political conflict through strategies of non-confrontation instead of engaging in translating conflicting agendas against each other. By insisting on keeping politics outside of the workspace, the IT developers adopt a strategy of keeping the collaboration together by keeping politics and work apart. However, we found that despite the attempts to manage the sub-group dynamics, politics constantly invade the workspace and challenge the collaboration. Significant resources are invested into managing the regimes of differentiated identity cards, permits, and checkpoints, all of which have consequences on the employees’ freedom or restriction of mobility. Thus, we argue that the IT development domain is inseparable from and deeply dependent upon the political domain.