- Journal ArticleHumor and Stereotypes in Computing: An Equity-focused Approach to Institutional Accountability(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 31, 2022) Borsotti, Valeria; Bjørn, PernilleWe propose equity-focused institutional accountability as a set of principles to organize equity, inclusion, and diversity efforts in computer science organizations. Structural inequity and lack of representation of marginalized identities in computing are increasingly in focus in CSCW research – and research institutions as well as tech organizations are struggling to find ways to advance inclusion and create more equitable environments. We study humor in a computer science organization to explore and decode how negative stereotypes create unnecessary and avoidable barriers to inclusion and counter efforts to creating a welcoming environment for all. We examine the humor embedded in sociomaterial artefacts, rituals, and traditions, and uncover the stereotyped narratives which are reproduced in formal and informal spaces. We argue that these stereotyped narratives both pose a risk of activating stereotype threat in members of marginalized groups, and of normalizing and reproducing ideas of who belongs in computer science. We situate and discuss the complexity of institutional accountability in the context of a traditionally participatory and collegial model of governance. As a way forward we propose three principles for an equity-focused approach to accountability in computer science organizations: 1) Examine organizational traditions and spaces to critically evaluate challenges for inclusion; 2) Normalize critical reflection in the core practices of the organization; 3) Diversify and improve data collection.
- Journal ArticleBetween a rock and a hard place: Negotiating Dependencies and Precarity in the On-Demand Economy(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 31, 2022) Muralidhar, Srihari Hulikal; Bossen, Claus; O'Neill, JackiThere is growing evidence of ride-hailing platforms’ adverse impact on drivers. Nonetheless, hundreds of thousands of drivers continue to work on these platforms. Why? The key contribution of this paper is to show that workers in technology-mediated labour markets come to be increasingly dependent on the technology-provider in order to connect with the customers. As more and more customers choose to get various tasks done via intermediary platforms, for workers who perform such tasks for a living, this translates into growing dependencies on these infrastructuralized platforms for their livelihoods and thus increased vulnerabilities to the impact of platform design and policies. These ‘new dependencies’, therefore, make it critical for us not to conflate workers’ continued use of platforms with their experiencing benefits. By drawing upon a qualitative study with auto-rickshaw drivers using Ola, a ride-hailing platform similar to Uber in India, the paper shows that a consequence of ‘new dependencies’ for drivers is that they are stuck ‘between a rock and a hard place’ whereby: a) on the one hand, the platform design heightens their precarity, provides them with little benefit, and often leads to tensions with customers, b) on the other, a shift of more and more customers from street-hailing to app-based hailing over time exacerbates dependencies for drivers on these very platforms, leaving them with little choice but to continue to use them for work.
- Journal ArticleHow Live Streaming Changes Shopping Decisions in E-commerce: A Study of Live Streaming Commerce(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 31, 2022) Wang, Ye; Lu, Zhicong; Cao, Peng; Chu, Jingyi; Wang, Haonan; Wattenhofer, RogerLive Streaming Commerce (LSC) is proliferating in China and gaining traction worldwide. LSC is an e-commerce service where sellers communicate with consumers through live streaming while consumers can place orders within the same system. Despite the significant involvement of consumers in LSC, it has not been systematically analyzed how consumers make shopping decisions when engaging with LSC. In this paper, we conduct a mixed-methods study, consisting of surveys ($N_1=240$) and follow-up interviews ($N_2=16$) with LSC consumers. We focus on two features of LSC, i.e., the communication between merchants and consumers through live streaming and the participation of streamers, and aim to understand how these changes influence consumers' decision-making process in LSC. We find that LSC enables merchants to exchange information with consumers based on their needs and provide additional customer services. Because of the appropriate information about the products they acquire and the enjoyable shopping atmosphere, consumers are willing to purchase products in LSC. As the intermediaries between merchants and consumers, streamers utilize their independent identity from merchants to enhance consumers' awareness of shopping and persuade their online shopping decisions. Moreover, we consider the opportunities and challenges of current LSC services and provide implications for LSC services and the research community regarding the development of LSC.
- Journal ArticleThe March of Chatbots into Recruitment: Recruiters' Experiences, Expectations, and Design Opportunities(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 31, 2022) Koivunen, Sami; Ala-Luopa, Saara; Olsson, Thomas; Haapakorpi, ArjaOrganizations’ hiring processes are increasingly shaped by various digital tools and e-recruitment systems. However, there is little understanding of the recruiters’ needs for and expectations towards new systems. This paper investigates recruitment chatbots as an emergent form of e-recruitment, offering a low-threshold channel for recruiter-applicant interaction. The rapid spread of chatbots and the casual nature of their user interfaces raise questions about the perceived benefits, risks, and suitable roles in this sensitive application area. To this end, we conducted 13 semi-structured interviews, including 11 interviews with people who are utilizing recruitment chatbots and two people from companies that are developing recruitment chatbots. The findings provide a qualitative account of their expectations and motivations, early experiences, and perceived opportunities regarding the current and future use of chatbots in recruitment. While chatbots answer the need for attracting new candidates, they have also introduced new challenges and work tasks for the recruiters. The paper offers considerations that can help to redesign recruitment bots from the recruiter’s viewpoint .
- Journal ArticleThe tension between national and local concerns in preparing for large-scale generic systems in healthcare(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 31, 2022) Ellingsen, Gunnar; Hertzum, Morten; Melby, LineLarge-scale generic systems are typically adapted to local practice through configuration. This is especially important in healthcare, which involves a plurality of institutions and users. However, the decision to acquire a generic system in public healthcare is typically founded on regional and national health policy goals, which often are translated into various forms of standardization. As a result, national and regional health policy interests may stand in contrast to interests on the local level. Therefore, we analyze how national and local concerns are weighed against each other in the preparations for implementing large-scale generic systems in healthcare. We explore what role configuration plays and what the prospects are for long-term development. We contribute with insight into how the organizational consequences of generic systems are formed already in the preparation phase and point to how configuration easily results in standardization, thereby basically privileging national and regional health goals at the expense of local needs. Empirically, we focus on the preparations for implementing the Epic electronic health record in Central Norway.
- Journal ArticleInverted Hierarchies on the Shop Floor: The Organisational Layer of Workarounds for Collaboration in the Metal Industry(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 31, 2022) Mörike, FraukeWorkarounds, or practices that deviate from the official pathway to a target, are frequent phenomena in the organisational context. With respect to collaboration, they highlight an area of mismatch between normative versus lived work practices, and therefore depict a relevant research area deeply rooted in computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). Building on the theory of hierarchical opposition by Louis Dumont and empirical data collected through ethnographic research at a company classified as a small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) in the German metal industry, this paper addresses the emergence of workarounds in collaborative work processes by setting them into the wider organisational context. The organisational layer of analysis reveals that workarounds emerge to cater for inversed information power relations and information asymmetries in the shop floor setting, which require communication to flow against the hierarchical slope between planning and execution functions. By applying an organisational lens to the concept of workarounds, this paper contributes a novel empirical analysis that confirms the value of workarounds as a source of insight into collaborative practices.
- Journal ArticleUnderstanding Matchmakers’ Experiences, Principles and Practices of Assembling Innovation Teams(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 30, 2021) Koivunen, Sami; Olshannikova, Ekaterina; Olsson, ThomasThe team composition of a project team is an essential determinant of the success of innovation projects that aim to produce novel solution ideas. Team assembly is essentially complex and sensitive decision-making, yet little supported by information technology (IT). In order to design appropriate digital tools for team assembly, and team formation more broadly, we call for profoundly understanding the practices and principles of matchmakers who manually assemble teams in specific contexts. This paper reports interviews with 13 expert matchmakers who are regularly assembling multidisciplinary innovation teams in various organizational environments in Finland. Based on qualitative analysis of their experiences, we provide insights into their established practices and principles in team assembly. We conceptualize and describe common tactical approaches on different typical levels of team assembly, including arranging approaches like “key-skills-first”, “generalist-first” and “topic-interest-first”, and balancing approaches like “equally-skilled-teams” and “high-expertise-teams”. The reported empirical insights can help to design IT systems that support team assembly according to different tactics.
- Journal ArticleExamining Co-Owners’ Privacy Consideration in Collaborative Photo Sharing(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 31, 2022) Li, Yao; Gui, XinningResearchers have investigated how collaborative photo sharing, in which users (owners) share photos on social media that reveal other users’ (co-owners) information, can violate the co-owner’s privacy and how contextual factors, such as photo content and audience, can influence the co-owner’s privacy concerns and decisions. However, it is unclear how the contextual factors interact with each other. Since co-owners’ privacy attitudes are often influenced by multiple contextual factors at the same time, it is possible that the impact of one factor depends on the other factors. Through an interview and survey study with WeChat users in China, we found significant interaction effects among the contextual factors in collaborative photo sharing. The impact of one factor on co-owners’ concerns is dependent on another factor. We suggest a more holistic evaluation of contextual factors and discuss how our findings contribute to the understanding of contextual integrity framework. We also provide implications for future privacy design for collaborative photo-sharing on social media.
- Journal ArticleRegional Differences in Information Privacy Concerns After the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica Data Scandal(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 31, 2022) González-Pizarro, Felipe; Figueroa, Andrea; López, Claudia; Aragon, CeciliaWhile there is increasing global attention to data privacy, most of their current theoretical understanding is based on research conducted in a few countries. Prior work argues that people’s cultural backgrounds might shape their privacy concerns; thus, we could expect people from different world regions to conceptualize them in diverse ways. We collected and analyzed a large-scale dataset of tweets about the #CambridgeAnalytica scandal in Spanish and English to start exploring this hypothesis. We employed word embeddings and qualitative analysis to identify which information privacy concerns are present and characterize language and regional differences in emphasis on these concerns. Our results suggest that related concepts, such as regulations, can be added to current information privacy frameworks. We also observe a greater emphasis on data collection in English than in Spanish. Additionally, data from North America exhibits a narrower focus on awareness compared to other regions under study. Our results call for more diverse sources of data and nuanced analysis of data privacy concerns around the globe.