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  • Journal Article
    An Object-Centred Approach to Encourage Online Participation in the Context of Behaviour Change
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 1, 2015) Ploderer, Bernd; Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron
    Online groups rely on contributions from their members to flourish, but in the context of behaviour change individuals are typically reluctant to participate actively before they have changed successfully. We took inspiration from CSCW research on objects to address this problem by shifting the focus of online participation from the exchange of personal experiences to more incidental interactions mediated by objects that offer support for change. In this article we describe how we designed, deployed and studied a smartphone application that uses different objects, called distractions and tips, to facilitate social interaction amongst people trying to quit smoking. A field study with 18 smokers revealed different forms of interaction: purely instrumental interactions with the objects, subtle engagement with other users through receptive and covert interactions, as well as explicit interaction with other users through disclosure and mutual support. The distraction objects offered a stepping-stone into interaction, whereas the tips encouraged interaction with the people behind the objects. This understanding of interaction through objects complements existing frameworks of online participation and adds to the current discourse on object-centred sociality. Furthermore, it provides an alternative approach to the design of online support groups, which offers the users enhanced control about the information they share with other users. We conclude by discussing how researchers and practitioners can apply the ideas of interaction around objects to other domains where individuals may have a simultaneous desire and reluctance to interact.
  • Journal Article
    Sketching Awareness: A Participatory Study to Elicit Designs for Supporting Ad Hoc Emergency Medical Teamwork
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 1, 2015) Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria
    Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc , time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness , elapsed time awareness , teamwork - oriented and patient - driven task awareness , and overall progress awareness . We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature.
  • Journal Article
    Collaboration in Augmented Reality
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 6, 42339) Lukosch, Stephan; Billinghurst, Mark; Alem, Leila; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi
    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they interact with, or a user can annotate the live video view of a remote worker, enabling them to collaborate at a distance. The overall goal is to augment the face-to-face collaborative experience, or to enable remote people to feel that they are virtually co-located. In this special issue on collaboration in augmented reality, we begin with the visions of science fiction authors of future technologies that might significantly improve collaboration, then introduce research articles which describe progress towards these visions, finally we outline a research agenda discussing the work still to be done.
  • Journal Article
    Tracking Deictic Gestures over Large Interactive Surfaces
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 2-3, 42156) Alavi, Ali; Kunz, Andreas
    In a collaborative environment, non-verbal communication elements carry important contents. These contents are partially or completely lost in remote collaboration. This paper presents a system to address this issue by tracking pointing gestures, the main non-verbal communication element prevalent in such meetings. The setup employs a touchscreen tabletop computer system for representing the visual content of the meeting, together with three motion trackers for tracking the pointing gestures.
  • Journal Article
    Providing Information on the Spot: Using Augmented Reality for Situational Awareness in the Security Domain
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 6, 42339) Lukosch, Stephan; Lukosch, Heide; Datcu, Dragoş; Cidota, Marina
    For operational units in the security domain that work together in teams, it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information to ensure well-working collaboration. Currently, most information exchange is based on oral communication. This paper reports on different scenarios from the security domain in which augmented reality (AR) techniques are used to support such information exchange. The scenarios have been designed with a User Centred Design approach, in order to make the scenarios as realistic as possible. To support these scenarios, an AR system has been developed and evaluated in two rounds. In the first round, the usability and feasibility of the AR support has been evaluated with experts from different operational units in the security domain. The second evaluation round then focussed on the effect of AR on collaboration and situational awareness within the expert teams. With regard to the usability and feasibility of AR, the evaluation shows that the scenarios are well defined and the AR system can successfully support information exchange in teams operating in the security domain. The second evaluation round showed that AR can especially improve the situational awareness of remote colleagues not physically present at a scene.
  • Journal Article
    Supporting Collaboration on Very Large-Scale Interactive Wall Surfaces
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 2-3, 2015) Rittenbruch, Markus
    In this paper we describe CubIT, a multi-user presentation and collaboration system installed at the Queensland University of Technology’s (QUT) Cube facility. The ‘Cube’ is an interactive visualisation facility made up of five very large-scale interactive multi-panel wall displays, each consisting of up to twelve 55-inch multi-touch screens (48 screens in total) and massive projected display screens situated above the display panels. The paper outlines the unique design challenges, features, implementation and evaluation of CubIT. The system was built to make the Cube facility accessible to QUT’s academic and student population. CubIT enables users to easily upload and share their own media content, and allows multiple users to simultaneously interact with the Cube’s wall displays. The features of CubIT are implemented via three user interfaces, a multi-touch interface working on the wall displays, a mobile phone and tablet application and a web-based content management system. Each of these interfaces offers different interaction mechanisms. Together they support a wide range of collaborative features including multi-user shared workspaces, drag and drop upload and sharing between users, session management and dynamic state control between different parts of the system. The results of our evaluation study showed that CubIT was successfully used for a variety of tasks, but also highlighted specific challenges with regards to user expectations as well as issues arising from public use.
  • Journal Article
    Deploying and Visualising Teacher’s Scripts of Small Group Activities in a Multi-surface Classroom Ecology: a Study in-the-wild
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 2-3, 42156) Martinez-Maldonado, Roberto; Clayphan, Andrew; Kay, Judy
    There is a fast growing interest in the use of interactive surfaces in collaborative learning contexts. These devices hold the promise to enrich a typical collocated class by enabling learners to interact with digital content while maintaining face-to-face mutual awareness. However, little has been done to help teachers deploy and monitor the learning scripts for their planned small group activities in a classroom enhanced with these kinds of devices. We present an approach for deploying and visualising the teacher’s script for small group idea generation and problem solving activities in a multi-surface classroom ecology that is composed of multiple interactive tabletops, public vertical displays and a teacher’s dashboard. We frame our study by drawing on design guidelines for classrooms with multiple interactive surfaces and combine these with principles of scripting and orchestration of learning activities. The paper presents the results and experiences of the implementation of our approach, in an authentic deployment of our classroom ecology, held over 8 weeks in a semester, involving 150 university students and 4 teachers. The paper concludes with remarks about the strengths and shortcomings of our approach, to be taken into account by learning practitioners and designers.
  • Journal Article
    Exploring Collaboration Patterns in a Multitouch Game to Encourage Social Interaction and Collaboration Among Users with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 2-3, 42156) Mireya Silva, Greis F.; Raposo, Alberto; Suplino, Maryse
    In this paper, we present a design and evaluation of four Collaboration Patterns on a multitouch collaborative game designed to encourage collaboration among people diagnosed with ASD (autism spectrum disorder). We define Collaboration Patterns as collaborative interaction strategies on elements in a multiuser interface. The patterns presented here were designed according to both recommendations from experts in ASD and requirements of a group of youths with high ASD-related impairment in their social interactions and were inspired by collaborative methods used in other studies. The proposed Collaboration Patterns were evaluated using research criteria relating to social interaction actions and collaborative tasks achieved by users during a multitouch game. The evaluation results suggest that each Collaboration Pattern motivates the need for collaboration and encourages creation of social interaction expressions among users. The applied sequence of patterns gradually encouraged collaborative activities and verbal and gestural interaction expressions among users. The significant characteristics of the proposed Collaboration Patterns allow us to suggest that they might be used in other collaborative applications aimed at fostering social interaction and collaboration among people with ASD.
  • Journal Article
    Blended Spaces for Collaboration
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 2-3, 42156) Benyon, David; Mival, Oli
    In this paper, we reflect on our experiences of designing, developing, implementing and using a number of real world, functional, multi-touch enabled Interactive Collaborative Environments (ICEs). We created an ICE in our university in order to explore issues of interaction design and of user experience in these types of environment. This ICE has been in use for the last 4 years and has been the focus of a number of empirical studies and observations. In addition we have also undertaken considerable consultancy and contract research work for a range of commercial clients as they seek to deliver innovative environments for collaboration that suit their own needs for collaboration. These consultancies have included a mobile collaborative environment for a county police force in California, the redesign of a multinational pharmaceutical company’s meeting rooms, the design of an oil rig control system and an innovation centre for an international call centre. In this paper we aim to distill these experiences and to provide theoretical and practical advice for designers of ICEs. Our theoretical position derives from the application of conceptual integration, to create ‘blended spaces’ — environments where the design of physical and digital spaces are closely integrated. We have also identified five key themes of interaction in ICEs derived from our own observations and those of others who have been looking at collaboration over a number of years. We present these themes as a critical design framework, TACIT, that focuses on Territoriality, Awareness, Control, Interaction and Transitions in ICEs. We then present two case studies of the blended spaces and TACIT framework in use. The paper concludes by looking at the opportunities for creative collaboration that the next generation of interactive blended spaces provides.
  • Journal Article
    Using Projected Light for Mobile Remote Guidance
    (Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 24, No. 6, 42339) Adcock, Matt; Gunn, Chris
    A worker performing a physical task may need to ask for advice and guidance from an expert. This can be a problem if the expert is in some distant location. In this paper, we describe a system which allows the expert to see the workplace from the worker’s point of view, and to draw annotations directly into that workplace using a pico-projector. Since the system can be worn by the worker, these projected annotations may move with the worker’s movements. We describe a method for sticking these annotations to the original positions thereby compensating for the movement of the worker. We call this ‘StickyLight’. We conducted a user study to evaluate the performance and user preference for the system in ‘sticky’ and freehand (‘non-sticky’) modes. We also compared the system on two platforms: helmet mounted and tripod mounted. Results indicate that freehand conditions took less time than sticky, and that tripod conditions took less time than helmet. However, participants reported preferences for sticky over non-sticky, likely due to the relative discomfort of keeping the helmet steady. This echoes the findings of several recent similar investigations..