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Virtual Reality Tele-conferencing: Implementation and Experience

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Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands


This paper describes the implementation of and early experiences with a virtual reality teleconferencing system called MASSIVE. This system includes a full realisation of the spatial model of interaction and its concepts of aura, awareness, focus, nimbus and adapters as was presented at ECSCW'93. This model supports users in interacting over ad-hoc combinations of audio, graphical and textual media through both 3-D and 2-D interfaces. Observations arising from the use of MASSIVE to support laboratory meetings are discussed; these include the need to support richer peripheral awareness, the need to improve the sensitivity of navigation, problems with lack of engagement between users, the need to support varying degrees of presence and problems arising from different perceptions of space between 2-D and 3-D users. Possible solutions to these problems are proposed.


Greenhalgh, Chris; Benford, Steve (1995): Virtual Reality Tele-conferencing: Implementation and Experience. ECSCW 1995: Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN: 978-94-011-0349-7. pp. 157-172. Full Papers. Stockholm, Sweden. 10–14 September 1995