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- Conference PaperPokémon GO: Collaboration and Information on the GO(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Aal, Konstantin; Hauptmeier, HelmutPokémon GO is one of the few location-based mobile games (LBMG) which gained popularity all over the world. It increases physical activity when players are walking around catching Pokémon. It also shapes the players’ sense of place and increases their social interactions. This exploratory auto-ethnographic study seeks to provide a first glimpse at how players appropriate different tools to inform themselves, collaborate with other players to catch or trade Pokémon and fulfill tasks inside the game together with a worldwide community. Results indicate that young adults learn how to organize catching events, arrange raid sessions, and collaborate within the Pokémon GO world and outside in the real world. This implies that the observed skills resulting from the gamification design elements of Pokémon GO can be transformed into the work life of young adults. Our explorative paper tries to pave the way for other research.
- Journal ArticleExploring Indie Game Development: Team Practices and Social Experiences in A Creativity-Centric Technology Community(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Freeman, Guo; McNeese, Nathan J.The emergence of various interest-based online communities has led to the popularity of new forms of distributed creative teamwork such as citizen science, crowdsourcing, and open source software development. These new phenomena further complicate the context and content of distributed creative teamwork: what are the characteristics of these new forms of creative teams? And how do they shape people’s perceptions and social experiences of distributed creative teams? In this paper, we report our empirical research of the team characteristics and practices in a creativity-centric technology community (i.e., independent [indie] game development) in hopes of exploring these questions. Our findings show that 1) indie game development teams are formed upon shared aspirations and use various strategies to collaborate with friends or online strangers; and their team practices are achieved through a balance between individual creativity and collective vision as well as a collaborative learning for problem solving and self-improvement; and 2) these teams mediate new forms of social interaction and collaborative experiences, featuring a mix of online comradery and weak social ties, and a mix of self-confidence and self-confliction. Using this new dataset and research context, we confirm and extend existing theories of distributed creative teams in CSCW. We also argue that studying these small-scale, self-selected, and interest-based teams can inform the design of collaborative systems to support various creative teams’ social needs.
- Journal ArticleMoral and Affective Differences in U.S. Immigration Policy Debate on Twitter(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Grover, Ted; Bayraktaroglu, Elvan; Mark, Gloria; Rho, Eugenia Ha RimUnderstanding ideological conflict has been a topic of interest in CSCW, for example in Value Sensitive Design research. More specifically, understanding ideological conflict is important for studying social media platforms like Twitter, which provide the ability for people to freely express their thoughts and opinions on contentious political events. In this work, we examine Twitter data to understand the moral, affective, and cognitive differences in language use between two opposing sides of the political debate over immigration related issues in the United States in the year since the 2016 presidential election. In total, we analyzed and compared the language of 45,045 pro-immigration tweets and 11,213 anti-immigration tweets spread across this period. Based on Moral Foundations Theory used to understand ideological conflict, we found pro-immigration tweets to contain more language associated with moral foundations of harm, fairness, and loyalty. Anti-immigration tweets contained more language associated with moral foundations of authority, more words associated with cognitive rigidity and more 3rd person pronouns and negative emotion. We discuss the implications of our research for political communication over social media, and for incorporating Moral Foundations Theory into other CSCW research. We discuss the potential application of this theory for Value Sensitive Design research.
- Conference PaperHybrid Collaboration – Moving Beyond Purely Co-Located or Remote Collaboration(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Workshops, 2019) Neumayr, Thomas; Saatçi, Banu; Augstein, Mirjam; Jetter, Hans-Christian; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Anderst-Kotsis, Gabriele; RinteL, SeanNew collaborative practices and technologies increasingly blur the traditional boundaries between co-located and remote collaboration. Using technologies such as connected interactive whiteboards and mobile devices, team meetings are increasingly partially distributed with co-located and remote members. Collaboration tools such as Slack also invite users to transcend the dichotomy of synchronous and asynchronous team work. In a first attempt to frame this new kind of collaborative practices, Neumayr et al. (2018) have formulated their framework of “Hybrid Collaboration” to enable the description and analysis of current hybrid collaboration practices. Still, there is a considerable knowledge gap in the field of hybrid collaboration although it is daily common practice. This one-day workshop aims at bringing together researchers and practitioners working on empirical research methodologies and currently existing practical use cases of hybrid collaboration while ultimately striving for a high level of usability and UX in the tools we develop in the realm of either co-located or remote collaboration settings.
- Conference PaperMaterial Manifestations of Dislocation and (Re)connection(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Workshops, 2019) Smit, Dorothé; Krischkowsky, Alina; Beuthel, Janne Mascha; Maurer, Bernhard; Fuchsberger, Verena; Murer, Martin; Tscheligi, Manfred; Devendorf, Laura; Zaman, BiekE; Nouwen, Marije; AAL, KonstantinThis workshop focuses on the material qualities of dislocation. The process of humans becoming separated from each other is likely to have diverse consequences; from shifting frequency, modes, or routines of communication and collaboration, to completely alternate means of connection. In this workshop, we aim to discuss a broad range of material manifestations and implications of (researching and designing for) dislocation. While engaging with material qualities of dislocation, we will reflect on the state of the art, discuss research gaps and potentials, and explore hands-on how design can create opportunities for (re)connection in response to dislocation through the creation of tangible interfaces.
- Conference PaperTowards Community-Robot Interactions(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Doctoral Colloquium, 2019) Joshi, SwapnaTechnical advances in multi-user robotics are supporting their increased real-world robot deployments in community and organizational settings. However, interactions with robots in these settings are viewed mostly as an aggregate of individual interactions with robots, separate from their social context. Through my Ph.D. research, I raise awareness about the need for a community perspective to Human-Robot Interactions (HRI) and use real-world studies to demonstrate the conceptual and methodological relevance of community-centric approaches to robot use. The goal of my research is to provide a value framework of ‘Community-Robot Interactions’ for systematic study of the use and development of robots for communities and probe the role of the robots as a community resource having theoretical and design implications for HRI.
- Conference PaperOn Middle-Ground Solutions for Domain-Specific Problems: The Case of a Data Transfer System for Sign Language Teachers(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Economidou, Eleni; Krischkowsky, Alina; Leitner, Bianca; Murer, Martin; Tscheligi, ManfredOftentimes domain-specific problems are imperceptible. The end users are so accustomed to the conditions that they do not request any other solution. In the context of a school for both hearing-impaired and hearing children, the particular way of teaching sign language led to the emergence of technology-mediated yet ill-supported work practices. This paper contributes to the CSCW community by introducing an approach for addressing domain-specific problems by applying a middle-ground yet optimal solution. As a direct outcome of this approach, we present the case of a data transfer system that supports sign language teachers’ work practices. This system, which is indefinitely deployed in the school, is a tangible representation of current infrastructural and contextual issues the teachers are facing, and serves both as a reflection on the work practices and an articulation means of the limitations that constraint them. We reflect on our approach, we discuss on the resulted case in terms of an indefinitely deployed research product, and we speculate on the system’s alternative application domains.
- Journal ArticleTranslation and Adoption: Exploring vocabulary work in expert-layperson encounters(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Dolata, Mateusz; Schwabe, GerhardAn advisory service encounter brings together a domain expert with a layperson in a complex life situation. Because of the different backgrounds and expertise levels, the interlocutors and meanings is an essential part of advisory services and, generally, of expert-layperson collaboration. Establishing and maintaining a common lexicon is a specific and, at the same type, frequent type of collaborative work. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what efforts this collaborative work involves and what role collaborative IT applications play in this regard. A collaborative application can well support the maintenance of a common lexicon by providing a way to externalize terms or definitions. Or it can generate additional work by providing further terms and definitions to be incorporated in the common lexicon. That puzzle gets reflected in specific design dilemmas: should the system use expert or conventional terms, what is the source of the adequate terminology, to what extent should the system adapt to the individual lexical choices, etc. This manuscript explores the work involved in establishing and maintaining a common lexicon in advisory services between an expert and a layperson. In particular, it demonstrates how external material, a dedicated collaborative application developed for supporting advisory services, impacts the maintenance of a common lexicon. First, the manuscript depicts practices involved in translation and adoption of terminology from the system into the conversation. Second, it characterizes the system’s impact on interlocutors’ vocabulary. Overall, the study contributes to the discourse on expert-layperson collaboration by characterizing an important type of work, the vocabulary work, and by depicting the role of collaborative applications for this type of work.
- Conference PaperCollaboration as Commodity: What does CSCW have to offer?(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Farshchian, Babak A.CSCW as a research field has contributed to the development of digital tools and platforms to support collaboration. Historically, detailed studies of collaboration have played a central role in the development of theories in CSCW. Parties to collaboration have been the main actors, engaged in synchronous or asynchronous, co-located or distant collaboration. CSCW has often considered the platform, i.e., the place where data about collaboration is stored, as a neutral actor without own agency or agenda. This picture has however changed drastically with the recent emergence of digital labor platforms and data- driven business models. Digital labor platforms move the focus from collaborating actors to platform owners, from supporting collaboration to trading collaboration as commodity. In this paper, I attempt to describe this development from a CSCW perspective. I propose a way to re-frame existing knowledge to fit into the new paradigm of collaboration as commodity. I propose to use research from neighboring fields such as information systems to increase our impact as CSCW researchers. Finally, I discuss several research questions for CSCW. This is work in progress.
- Conference PosterDeriving Personas Based on Attitudes to Interruption and Information Overload(Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Demos and Posters, 2019) Goddard, David; Mulholland, Paul; Piccolo, LaraUbiquitous devices provide users with notifications that continue to blur the distinction between work and personal activities. This research aims to understand how users manage - and would like to manage - such notifications in order to design better support. A methodology was developed to create design scenarios from a survey of people’s attitudes and perceptions. The survey asked participants how they interact with various collaborative, social and communication services, and about their views regarding trust in those services, privacy and how they have experienced information overload. A two-step clustering technique was then used to identify distinct archetypes within the respondents resulting in 5 personas. A technique uniting personas and empathy map has been applied to model typical behaviours, goals and pain points, which will inform the design of a solution to manage interruptions and information overload.
- Conference PaperLet the Bot Take Care of It: Exploring #CapIt, a Whiteboard Table Capture System(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Smit, Dorothé; Lindlbauer, Andreas; Murer, Martin; Hengeveld, Bart; Tscheligi, ManfredIn this paper we describe #CapIt, a system that aims to combine the best of analog whiteboards and digiboards in tabletop collaborations. #CapIt was deployed at an HCI research unit for over a year. In an exploratory study completed after the system was fully integrated in participants‘ day-to-day work practices, three power users of #CapIt were asked to reflect on their use of the system by means of mindmapping. Using photo elicitation and semi-structured interviews, additional feedback was gathered from the participants. Based on the participants’ comments as well as our observations of the mindmapping process, we here report our findings pertaining to (1) hybridity; (2) collaboration; and (3) territories, privacy and temporality; and discuss the influence of the system on collaborative work practices.
- Journal ArticlePlatform of Platforms: Meshing Networks, Scales and Values for a Local Sustainable Sharing Economy(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Light, Ann; Miskelly, ClodaghThe “sharing economy” has promised more sustainable use of the world’s finite resources, exploiting latency and promoting renting rather than ownership through digital networks. But do the digital brokers that use networks at global scale offer the same care for the planet as more traditional forms of sharing? We contrast the sustainability of managing idle capacity with the merits of collective local agency bred by caring-based sharing in a locality. Drawing on two studies of neighbourhood sharing in London and analysis of the meshing of local sharing initiatives, we ask how ‘relational assets’ form and build up over time in a neighbourhood, and how a platform of platforms might act as local socio-technical infrastructure to sustain alternative economies and different models of trust to those found in the scaling sharing economy. We close by proposing digital networks of support for local solidarity and resourcefulness, showing how CSCW knowledge on coordination and collaboration has a role in achieving these ends.
- Conference PaperSustainability in Crisis: Towards Business Continuity in Small and Medium Enterprises(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Doctoral Colloquium, 2019) Syed, Hussain AbidSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) epitomize a vital part in all developed and developing economies. SMEs being peculiar in nature and operations are often the most affected in case of an emergency or a crisis. Mostly, the scarcity of resources in respect to employees, time and capital make them more vulnerable to crisis. This article instantiates the need of risk assessment and disaster preparedness, and hence the utility of BCM in the context of SMEs as a viable option. It further establishes the technological foundation of a comprehensive BCM realization for SMEs.
- Conference PaperDoes it matter why we hack? – Exploring the impact of goal alignment in hackathons(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Medina Angarita, Maria Angelica; Nolte, AlexanderTime-bounded events such as hackathons have become increasingly popular in recent years. During these events participants typically form teams, exercise fast prototype development, challenge themselves to innovate, practice new skills, collaborate with diverse team members, and compete against other teams. Hackathon organizers have a certain vision in mind about which outcome they would like to achieve and design the event based on this vision. Participants on the other hand do not necessarily share the same vision and come with their own goals and aspirations. While work in related fields suggests that it is important for goals of organizers and participants to align in order to achieve them this might be different in hackathons due to their unique setup. Drawing from literature we identified potential goals of organizers and participants and conducted a case study of three hackathons focusing on the alignment of goals between organizers and participants. Our findings indicate that the goals of organizers and participants did not align in all cases, that goal awareness on the part of the organizers appears may have a stronger impact on goal achievement and that hackathons appear to have inherent characteristics that can materialize even when not planned for.
- Journal ArticleScholars' Perceptions of Relevance in Bibliography-based People Recommender System(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Olshannikova, Ekaterina; Olsson, Thomas; Huhtamäki, Jukka; Yao, PengCollaboration and social networking are increasingly important for academics, yet identifying relevant collaborators requires remarkable effort. While there are various networking services optimized for seeking similarities between the users, the scholarly motive of producing new knowledge calls for assistance in identifying people with complementary qualities. However, there is little empirical understanding of how academics perceive relevance, complementarity, and diversity of individuals in their profession and how these concepts can be optimally embedded in social matching systems. This paper aims to support the development of diversity-enhancing people recommender systems by exploring senior researchers’ perceptions of recommended other scholars at different levels on a similar–different continuum. To conduct the study, we built a recommender system based on topic modeling of scholars’ publications in the DBLP computer science bibliography. A study of 18 senior researchers comprised a controlled experiment and semi-structured interviewing, focusing on their subjective perceptions regarding relevance, similarity, and familiarity of the given recommendations, as well as participants’ readiness to interact with the recommended people. The study implies that the homophily bias (behavioral tendency to select similar others) is strong despite the recognized need for complementarity. While the experiment indicated consistent and significant differences between the perceived relevance of most similar vs. other levels, the interview results imply that the evaluation of the relevance of people recommendations is complex and multifaceted. Despite the inherent bias in selection, the participants could identify highly interesting collaboration opportunities on all levels of similarity.
- Journal ArticleRethinking Financial Inclusion: from Access to Autonomy(Computer Supported Cooperative Work - ECSCW 2019: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Muralidhar, Srihari Hulikal; Bossen, Claus; O’Neill, JackiFinancial inclusion has been defined and understood primarily in terms of access, thereby constituting ‘inclusion’/‘exclusion’ as a binary. This paper argues such a view to be myopic that risks treating financial inclusion as an end in itself, and not as means to a larger end. ‘Access’ oriented perspectives also fail to take into account considerations of structural factors like power asymmetries and pay inadequate attention to user practices. Through the case of auto-rickshaw drivers in Bangalore, India, and their use of Ola, a peer-to-peer taxi hailing service similar to Uber, we show that access is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to achieve financial inclusion in a substantive sense. By examining in detail, the financial needs and practices of rickshaw drivers, we identify the opportunities and constraints for digital technology to better support their financial practices and enhance their wellbeing. The paper proposes adding ‘autonomy’ and ‘affordances’ as two crucial factors to be included in the discourse on financial inclusion. Finally, we outline design implications for P2P technologies to contribute towards the financial inclusion of drivers.
- Conference PaperAppropriation and Practices of Working with Voice Assistants in the Kitchen(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Doctoral Colloquium, 2019) Pins, DominikFor our research, we focus on the kitchen as an important space at home that is not only used for cooking but also has a strong social role in the household (Johannes-Hornschuh, 2010). Many housekeeping tasks take place in the kitchen that can be supported by VAs, such as managing a shopping list or the (family) calendar or researching nutrition and food. These interactions are interesting to study in terms of their social and collaborative components. The kitchen offers many relevant tasks which are often rather complex and might require mixed- media approaches for successful support that might well exceed the capabilities of the VA technology in the current form (Moore, 2017). Better understanding where there are areas for innovation and what we can learn from the current practices of interaction to work around the current limitations is a further aim of our work.
- Conference PosterNew Logics of Ethics in the Age of Digital Platforms: Design Fictions of Autonomous Cars(Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Demos and Posters, 2019) Norström, Livia; Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte; Johansson, Lars-Olof; Islind, Anna Sigridur; Lundh Snis, UlrikaAutonomous cars are the first major examples of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in everyday life. When cars are transformed into platforms new service relationships emerge between car companies and the car users. These relationships generate gains and catches for both parts related to how physical and non-physical resources are exchanged in the sharing economy; how integrity is negotiated; and how responsibility is delegated when AI enables the car to take over most of the driving. With a “car as a platform approach”, in this paper, we present a design fiction on ethical implications for citizens’ daily lives with autonomous cars.
- Conference PaperExploring Trust in Human-Agent Collaboration(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2019) Schwaninger, Isabel; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine; Weiss, AstridCollaborative ensembles will increasingly involve agents like robots in the near future. A key part of collaboration is trust. While trust has been mainly studied between humans in CSCW, trust in human-agent research has been mostly studied in dyadic formations divorced from the broader context. This exploratory paper critically discusses previous work on trust across CSCW and HCI-related areas, taking into account recent practice approaches in CSCW and what they can contribute for understanding trust in human-agent collaboration. To make better sense of how trust emerges in collaborative ensembles with agents, we suggest that concepts that have been proposed in the field of human-agent interaction need to be further explored in real-life settings, while concepts embraced in CSCW can lead to a more thorough understanding of the situatedness and dynamics of trust going beyond the attributes of the agent itself.
- Text DocumentEnvisioning Futures of Practice-Centered Computing(Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Demos and Posters, 2019) Erickson, Ingrid; Lewkowicz, Myriam; Light, Ann; Ciolfi, Luigina; Krischkowsky, Alina; Muller, MichaelIn this panel, we will engage with the conference's membership and friends to consider directions for the possible futures of practice-centered computing. This panel is not targeting or aiming to result in a single, agreed "universal” vision, nor to ask for a shared vision among the panelists and the audience. Rather, we offer several and diverse vision statements by distinguished and innovative ECSCW scholars, being experts in their specific domain or context of research. These statements will be necessarily incomplete until the ECSCW membership has joined the discussion, offering their own, additional visions of the futures of the field. With this, the panel aims to engage in a discussion that foresees exciting future research directions for the field of ECSCW but likewise also unveils potential hurdles the community might face.