Browsing by Author "Stevens, Gunnar"
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- Text DocumentAppropriation of the Eclipse Ecosystem: Local Integration of Global Network Production(COOP 2010: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Designing Cooperative Systems, 2010) Stevens, Gunnar; Draxler, SebastianEclipse and Mozilla Firefox represent a new type of open software that can be supplemented by manifold extensions, being implemented by independent software vendors and open source projects. Research on such software ecosystems shows that collaboration patterns in the software industry evolve from value chains to value nets. An often ignored side-effect of this development is a vast extent of integration work that needs to be done by users. Taking a user point of view, this paper presents an empirical study on the practices of appropriating the Eclipse ecosystem as an example of radical tailorability, based on new opportunities given by the surrounding ecosystem. We show the practices users have developed to manage the antagonism of maintaining a stable and productive working environment, while simultaneously innovating it. Based on these results, we outline different opportunities to improve flexible software by supporting cooperation among the diverse actors involved, in a network of production and consumption.
- Text DocumentBridging among Ethnic Communities by Cross-cultural Communities of Practice(Communities and Technologies: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Communities and Technologies 2005, 2005) Stevens, Gunnar; Veith, Michael; Wulf, VolkerThe integration of immigrants is a big challenge for western societies. In this paper we describe how to bridge between ethnically defined communities by means of computer-supported project work. Our approach is grounded in socio-cultural theories of learning, especially Community of Practice (CoP). To evaluate our approach, we have built up a computer club in a multi cultural neighbourhood of the city of Bonn. Parents and children of mainly German and Turkish origin work jointly to create multimedia artefacts. These artefacts represent aspects of the neighbourhood’s recent history. The paper describes the project and its theoretical background. We also provide empirical findings to evaluate our approach.
- Conference PaperBuilding Appropriate Trust in Human-AI Interactions(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Alizadeh, Fatemeh; Stevens, Gunnar; Vereschak, Oleksandra; Bailly, Gilles; Caramiaux, Baptiste; Pins, DominikAI (artificial intelligence) systems are increasingly being used in all aspects of our lives, from mundane routines to sensitive decision-making and even creative tasks. Therefore, an appropriate level of trust is required so that users know when to rely on the system and when to override it. While research has looked extensively at fostering trust in human-AI interactions, the lack of standardized procedures for human-AI trust makes it difficult to interpret results and compare across studies. As a result, the fundamental understanding of trust between humans and AI remains fragmented. This workshop invites researchers to revisit existing approaches and work toward a standardized framework for studying AI trust to answer the open questions: (1) What does trust mean between humans and AI in different contexts? (2) How can we create and convey the calibrated level of trust in interactions with AI? And (3) How can we develop a standardized framework to address new challenges?
- Conference PaperNetworks of Practices: Exploring Design Opportunities for Interconnected Practices(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Lawo, Dennis; Engelbutzeder, Philip; Esau, Margarita; Stevens, GunnarFor over a decade, researchers from the practice-centered computing community are taking social practices as a unit of design. While the first generation focused on a social practice in isolation, more recent work argues for the (inter-)connections of mutually influencing practices as the primary unit of design. We discuss these current approaches to motivate the notion of a network of practices. Utilizing the case of food practices, we construct and analyze a network populated by the answers of 60 participants. Based on this network we suggest how to identify central elements and clusters as well as points for intervention within the overall network, but also within and in-between clusters of practices. Based on this, our work critically discusses how an understanding of practices as a network could improve practice-based research and design.
- Conference PaperPotentials of the Unexpected: Technology Appropriation Practices and Communication Needs(Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2014) Tscheligi, Manfred; Krischkowsky, Alina; Neureiter, Katja; Inkpen, Kori; Muller, Michael; Stevens, GunnarWhether in private or professional life, individuals frequently adapt the technology around them and work with what they have at hand to accomplish a certain task. In this one-day workshop, we will discuss how this form of technology appropriation is used to satisfy communication needs. Thereby, we specifically focus on technology that was not intended to facilitate communication, but which led to appropriation driven by individuals' communication needs. Our aim is to identify unexpected" communication needs, to better address these in the design of interactive systems. We focus on a variety of different contexts, ranging from not restricted contexts to environments that are characterized by strict regulations (e.g., production lines with 24/7 shift production cycles). Consequently, this workshop aims at better understanding how users adapt technology to match their individual communication purposes and how these appropriation practices interrelate with and support organizational cooperation."
- Journal ArticleSupporting the Collaborative Appropriation of an Open Software Ecosystem(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 20, 40817) Draxler, Sebastian; Stevens, GunnarSince the beginning of CSCW there was an intense interest for research on workplace design using tailorable applications and sharing customizations. However, in the meantime the forms of production, distribution, configuration and appropriation of software have changed fundamentally. In order to reflect these developments, we enlarge the topic of discussion beyond customizing single applications, but focusing on how people design their workplaces making use of software ecosystems. We contribute to understand the new phenomenon from within the users’ local context. By empirically studying the Eclipse software ecosystem and its appropriation, we show the improved flexibility users achieve at designing their workplaces. Further the uncovered practices demonstrate, why design strategies like mass-customization are a bad guiding principle as they just focus on the individual user. In contrast we outline an alternative design methodology based on existing CSCW approaches, but also envision where the workplace design in the age of software ecosystems has to go beyond.
- Journal ArticleThe Automation of the Taxi Industry – Taxi Drivers’ Expectations and Attitudes Towards the Future of their Work(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 30, No. 4, 2021) Pakusch, Christina; Boden, Alexander; Stein, Martin; Stevens, GunnarAdvoc ates of autonomous driving predict that the occupation of taxi driver could be made obsolete by shared autonomous vehicles (SAV) in the long term. Conducting interviews with German taxi drivers, we investigate how they perceive the changes caused by advancing automation for the future of their business. Our study contributes insights into how the work of taxi drivers could change given the advent of autonomous driving: While the task of driving could be taken over by SAVs for standard trips, taxi drivers are certain that other areas of their work such as providing supplementary services and assistance to passengers would constitute a limit to such forms of automation, but probably involving a shifting role for the taxi drivers, one which focuses on the sociality of the work. Our findings illustrate how taxi drivers see the future of their work, suggesting design implications for tools that take various forms of assistance into account, and demonstrating how important it is to consider taxi drivers in the co-design of future taxis and SAV services.
- Conference PaperWho do you trust: Peers or Technology? A conjoint analysis about computational reputation mechanisms(Proceedings of 18th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2020) Stevens, Gunnar; Bossauer, PaulPeer-to-peer sharing platforms are taking over an increasingly important role in the platform economy due to their sustainable business model. By sharing private goods and services, the challenge arises to build trust between peers online mostly without any kind of physical presence. Peer rating has been proven as an important mechanism. In this paper, we explore the concept called Trust Score, a computational rating mechanism adopted from car telematics, which can play a similar role in carsharing. For this purpose, we conducted a conjoint analysis where 77 car owners chose between fictitious user profiles. Our results show that in our experiment the telemetric-based score slightly outperforms the peer rating in the decision process, while the participants perceived the peer rating more helpful in retrospect. Further, we discuss potential benefits with regard to existing shortcomings of user rating, but also various concerns that should be considered in concepts like telemetric-based reputation mechanism that supplements existing trust factors such as user ratings.